A row of closely planted sweet thorn shrubs makes an impenetrable hedge. The flowers are attractive to bees and the long flowering period allows to produce pleasant honey from the nectar. Its roots system improves soil structure, making it more susceptible to infiltration by water (Orwa et al., 2009). Acacia karroo (= Vachellia karroo) is a very hardy, semi-deciduous, fast-growing and drought-resistant tree. Feeding a diet containing 4% of Acacia karroo leaf meal to growing rabbits did not result in differences in intake and digestibility. Acacia karroo is thus a valuable a protein supplement for livestock fed low quality forage (Brown et al., 2016; Mapiye et al., 2011). Sweet Acacia like other desert natives have slender, white to gray thorns along the branches. They are deep or golden yellow in colour. The loose canopy allows dappled sunlight through so that grass can grow right up to the trunk. Another species of catclaw acacia (A. greggii var. The influence of an, Xhomfulana,V. Acacia is a genus of many trees and shrubs that belong to the family of Fabaceae. Acacia karroo foliage has anthelmintic properties in ruminants when fed with at an inclusion rate around 40-50% (Brown et al., 2016; Marume et al., 2012, Mapiye et al., 2011; Xhomfulana et al., 2009; Kahiya et al., 2003). In spring, the tree blooms with an abundance of fragrant, yellow flower clusters that resemble pompoms. Thorns in second year, 3-pronged, single, or in close-set clusters. The fibre content of Acacia karroo leaves is consistent with the fibre contents of leaves from other acacias (Brown et al., 2016; Mapiye et al., 2011; Mokoboki et al., 2005). The plants of these genus show characteristics like pod bearing with sap, leaves typically bearing large amount of tannins, and having thorns. In Australia, sweet thorn is referred to as a noxious weed, requiring notification and destruction in New South Wales, Western Australia and Queensland (US Forest Service, 2018). The word acacia is derived from the word akakia, which is the name given by the Greek botanist Pedanius Dioscorides. They can be browsed or cut, and are reported to be deprived of antinutritional substances. IntechOpen, Dube, J. S. ; Reed, J. D. ; Ndlovu, L. R., 2001. Sweet thorn is reported to stabilize sand dunes and disturbed areas (CABI, 2018). Rural Dev., 21 (7), Mokoboki, H. K. ; Ndlovu, L. R.; Ng'ambi, J. W. ; Malatje, M. M. ; Nikolova, R. V., 2005. Whitethorn . Mimosa Thorn . Effect of, Ngwa, A. T. ; Nsahlai, I. V. ; Bonsi, M. L. K., 2002. A truly exceptional tree, with a plethora of benefits for the gardener, farmer and the environment. The rumen digestion of dry matter, nitrogen and cell wall constituents of the pods of, Nyamukanza, C. C.; Scogings, P. F., 2008. Ecocrop database. The development of its canopy benefits to the grass growing under it, as it reduces the temperatures of the soil and provides shade (Dingaan et al., 2018; Orwa et al., 2009). Wattles grow in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Australia and Central America and are not frost-tolerant. Thorns are paried and straight, conspicuous white in colour, often 10 cm long, sometimes up to 25 cm, occurring especially on the lower branches. Acacia karroo occurs in a wide range of habitats like dry thornveld, river valley scrub, bushveld, woodland, grassland, banks of dry watercourses, riverbanks, coastal dunes and coastal scrub (Ecocrop, 2019. Sweet thorn is very tolerant of cold and resistant to frost down to -10°C, which may cause defoliation but does not kill the trees. Propagation of Sweet Acacia … The thorny branches make good cover for birds and other wildlife. Influence of dietary supplementation with, Mashamaite, L.; Ng'ambi, J. W.; Norris, D.; Ndlovu, L. R.; Mbajiorgu, C. A., 2009. For the best growth, water newly planted trees regularly until they are established and growing. The protein content of Acacia karroo foliage range between 10% and 23% DM (Brown et al., 2016), which meets the N requirements of growing cattle or goats. Vachellia karroo, also commonly known as the Sweet Thorn, is part of the acacia specie and native to southern Africa. The DM digestibility and particularly the protein digestibility of Acacia karroo are relatively low compared to those reported for similar browse plants, which may be explained by the presence of phenolic compounds and more specifically condensed tannins (Mapiye et al., 2011; Aganga et al., 1998).. For beef production, Acacia karroo leaf meal can be mixed with locally available feed energy sources such as rangeland hay or chopped crop residues, before being distributed into troughs in pens or distributed in the rangeland. They look good on patios and decks, but they produce fierce thorns, so plant them where they won’t come in direct contact with people. The species grows to a height of 15–30 feet (4.6–9.1 m) and grows multiple trunks. Acacia Tree Growing Conditions Interestingly, stinging ants and acacia trees have a mutually beneficial relationship. Vachellia karroo, commonly known as the Sweet thorn, is a species of acacia, native to southern Africa from southern Angola east to Mozambique, and south to South Africa. The bark yields tannins used for dyeing leather to a reddish colour but also providing an unpleasant odour. Acacia karroo is a multipurpose tree that can be used for food and feed, and yields useful products. May be sold as Acacia smallii or A. minuta.Also try A. schaffneri.Note: previously classified as A. farnesiana. Acacia karroo is a very variable, thorny, evergreen or almost evergreen tree that grows to a height of 2-20 (-25) m. It has a rounded crown. This refers to the thorns present on the tree. Thorns on African acacias are important for identification, they are divided into 5 main groups according the size, shape and position of the thorns. The slightly rough stems are a rich chocolate brown or grey having sharp short multiple thorns. It does well in arid environments provided that it can find supply of groundwater. Metabolic response of pigs supplemented with incremental levels of leguminous, Halimani, T. E. ; Ndlovu, L. R. ; Dzama, K. ; Chimonyo, M. ; Miller, B. G., 2007. Food Agric. These trees can grow up to 12 meters and is recognizable by its rounded crown, yellow flowers, finely textured leaves and twin thorns. Sweet thorn is found from sea level up to 1000 m altitude. Goats fed alfalfa hay and supplemented with fresh Acacia karroo leaves included at 40% showed higher growth rates, lower meat pH, higher meat tenderness and higher meat juiciness than goats not supplemented with Acacia karroo (Ngambu et al., 2013; Ngambu et al., 2012). In the 2000s, molecular phylogenetic studies resulted in the controversial transfer of many Acacia species into the genera Vachellia, Senegalia, Mariosousa and Acaciella, with only Australian species remaining the Acacia genus (Kyalangalilwa et al., 2013). The small, bright yellow, puff-like flowers are very fragrant and appear in clusters in late winter then sporadically after each new flush of growth, providing nearly year-round bloom. Below is given taxonomical classification of the plant. Sweet Acacia, botanical name Acacia smallii, is an attractive, drought tolerant, small to medium size tree that adds colorful beauty to any Southwestern landscape. This pleasant tasting gum is eaten by people and animals, including the Lesser Bushbaby which feeds exclusively on insects and gum from trees, particularly vachellia and sengalia trees. In the Molopo area of South Africa, sweet thorn encroachment may have reduced grass production by 30% (Dingaan et al., 2018). The plant grows 6 to 12 feet tall with a similar spread. Proanthocyanidins and other phenolics in, Ecocrop, 2019. Its branches have 1" long thorns that can be a nuisance. It belongs to plant family Fabaceae and Genus Acacia. Prod., 6: 117-128, Halimani, T. E. ; Ndlovu, L. R. ; Dzama, K. ; Chimonyo, M. ; Miller, B. G., 2005. Nutritive value of, Mueller-Harvey, I., 2006. Variations in the composition Acacia karroo foliage are caused by differences in populations, soil, climate, season, stage of growth, and browsing pressure. Despite the thorns, giraffes love to eat their leaves. Prized for its highly fragrant flowers, Acacia farnesiana (Sweet Acacia) is a semi-evergreen multi-trunked shrub or small tree with a naturally spreading, vaselike shape. The plant grows 6 to 12 feet tall with a similar spread. Fruits are not generally valued. As a legume, the tree can fix nitrogen and improve the soil. Acacia karroo contains high levels of condensed tannins, with values between 5.5% and 10% DM (Brown et al., 2016; Mapiye et al., 2011; Mokoboki et al., 2005; Dube et al., 2001), when a 2-8% range is expected to be beneficial to ruminants (Mueller-Harvey, 2006); Mapiye et al., 2011). In these studies, the growth performance of steers supplemented with Acacia karoo leaf meal remained lower than those of steers supplemented with sunflower cake ( (Mapiye et al., 2009a; Mapiye et al., 2009b). Acacia karroo grows on most soil types, though it does better on soils with a relatively high fertility such as clay, loam, black hydromorphic vertisols with high pH or deep alluvial soils along the banks of rivers and streams (Ecocrop, 2019; Orwa et al., 2009). The thorns are not as prominent on the older growth. Bark rough, dark, deeply furrowed; twigs brown, smooth. Many species of acacia have symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationships with species of ants. Sweet Acacia (Acacia Farnesiana) This small tree which is native to tropical America has very small feathery, finely divided leaflets on compound leaves and has a soft medium green color. The chemical composition of South African fodder plants. Sweet thorn is tolerant to wind, fire and salt spray (Ecocrop, 2019). Sweet thorn (Acacia karroo Hayne or Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso) is a very variable and very thorny tree species that is widespread in Africa and grows to a height of 5-12 m. It is a multipurpose tree providing food, feed, commercial products, and environmental services. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. Livest. The protein content of fresh Acacia karroo sprouts was higher than that of commercial pellets and the composition of the diets was calculated to meet the metabolizable energy requirements of goats (Nyamukanza et al., 2008). Flowers yellow, in round inflorescences 10-15 mm in diameter, in clusters of between four and six, and are sweetly scented. (Ed. S. Afr. Acacia farnesiana Desert Sweet Acacia 20 x 20 E Winter Yellow 12 Moderate thorns, litter, allergy Acacia schaffneri Twisted Acacia 18 x 20 D Spring Yellow 17 Moderate thorns, some litter, allergy Acacia stenophylla Shoestring Acacia 30 x 20 E Fall White 18 Fast Caesalpinia cacalaco Cascalote 15 x 15 D Spring Yellow 25 Moderate some litter, thorns For instance, though it contains less polyphenols than Acacia nilotica, Acacia karoo had higher anthelmintic properties in goats than Acacia nilotica and most of its polyphenols are in the form of condensed tannins (Kahiya et al., 2003). Ten species of butterflies depend on the Acacia sweet thorn for their survival. Very fragrant. In turn, the ants protect the tree by stinging any animals that attempt to munch on the leaves. Acacia karroo is native to South Africa, where it is the most common Acacia (sensu largo) species. There are 2 subspecies, V. farnesiana var. 86 (13): 2010-2037, Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U., 2012. Easily accessible. Soc. This thorny tree is native to the southwestern United States. Karoo Mimosa . Acacia karroo is a fast growing species that establishes readily in full sunlight and does not need shelter or protection from grass fires. The flower-heads are axillary borne on young shoots and grouped in pompons. Soetdoring (A) Suurdoring (A) Karoodoring (A) Mookana (N.S) Umunga (Z) mooka (T) Description. greggii and var. It thrives in dry, arid soils found in the Southwestern U.S. Feed potential of, Aganga, A. The current accepted taxon of Acacia karroo is thus Vachellia karroo. Creeping Wattle (Acacia saligna) Creeping wattle, sometimes known as blue leaf wattle, can be a … Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. The most common types of locust trees are the black locust and honey locust tree. Supplements containing. The leaves, bark, gum and roots are used in a wide range of traditional remedies. Contents of Ca, Mg , Fe and Zn are above the recommended diet contents for beef cattle (Mapiye et al., 2011). Res. The sweet thorn gets its common name from the gum which is exuded from wounds in the bark. This particular plant species, Acacia farnesiana bears very aromatic flowers. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. The leaflets are 4-7 mm long x 1-3 mm broad. In their native South Africa, Acacia karoo trees are beneficial wildlife trees. pinetorum is rare. Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. Sprout selection and performance of goats fed, Orwa, C.; Mutua, A.; Kindt, R.; Jamnadass, R.; Anthony, S., 2009. Sweet acacia tree is often confused with a similar plant, Acacia smallii, which is more tolerant of cold and blooms only in the spring. Mey., Acacia pseudowightii Thoth., Acacia roxburghii Wight & Arn., Mimosa eburnea L. f., Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso. They are frequently used in street and sidewalk plantings as well as in parking lots. Its zig-zag stems are fully armed with sharp thorns and clad with feathery, finely divided leaflets of a soft green color. Sweet thorns make attractive specimens, and you can also grow them in containers. These thorns are conspicuous, readily visible and pose little risk to pedestrians. The fruit is a 18 cm long dehiscent pod, green to brown when mature. sweet acacia, weesatch Leaf Type: Semi-evergreen Texas Native: Firewise: ... Foliage is gray-green and twigs are armed with a pair of straight thorns up to 2" long at the base of each leaf. A decrease in fecal egg counts and worm counts was observed in kids infected with Haemonchus contortus larvae and given Acacia karroo whereas the infection progressed in kids not fed Acacia karroo (Marume et al., 2012). Abundant, fragrant, yellow puffball flowers light up the landscape, and adorn the tree intermittently (in response to rain) throughout summer. Subking… Utility of, Marume, U.; Chimonyo, M.; Dzama, K., 2012. It has twice-compound leaves 1-2 inches long. The condensed tannins contents of Acacia karroo is expected to be higher in old plants, during the dry season, on low quality soils (Scogings et al., 2008). Giraffes , baby & adults, eating leaves of the Acacia sweet thorn tree... Filmed in the Western Cape area #giraffes #acacia #giraffeseating A very thorny species, sweet thorn can be used as a living hedge (CABI, 2018). Proc. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/349 Last updated on November 9, 2019, 1:34, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, Sweet thorn (Acacia karroo), aerial part, dry, In vitro DM digestibility (pepsin-cellulase), In vitro OM digestibility (pepsin-cellulase), Aganga, A. Attracts pollinators. Feed potential of, Dingaan, M.; du Preez, P. J., 2018. The bark is grey to light brown and gets deeply furrowed with age. This tree features sweet-scented flowers that provide good winter color. The inner bark is used to make ropes. Sweet thorns are hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11. In: Hufnagel, L. Just as the height of the sweet acacia can dictate its placement in the landscape, so can its thorns. This preparation of leaf meal is labour intensive and less laborious leaf meal harvesting technologies are still sought (Mapiye et al., 2011). There are several hybrids between these two plants that are sold in nurseries under the name “Sweet Acacia.” Acacia thorns Acacias have a surprising tenant on their branches! Other than pruning, the only maintenance a sweet thorn tree needs is cleanup. The branches of the plant are covered in thorns and the trunk may be thorny as well. FAO, Rome, Italy, Groenewald, J. W.; Joubert, D. M.; Tölken, H., 1967. The tree has also been used for raft-making and fencing. It is an aggressive pioneer, readily invading degraded or overgrazed areas.It competes for space, water and nutrients with pasture grasses, and may replace them (Orwa et al., 2009). This acacia can grow to 25 or 30 feet high. Sweet thorn . The catclaw acacia (Acacia greggii) earned its name because its wickedly sharp thorns curve much like a cat's claws. Many varieties of locust trees have long sharp thorns and there are a … Growers in Africa sell the gum as a gum arabic substitute and use the beans as goat and cattle forage. The seeds can be roasted to make a coffee substitute. Nutritional status, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Nguni steers supplemented with, Mapiye, C. ; Chimonyo, M. ; Marufu, M. C. ; Dzama, K., 2011. It is often used to help restore ruined mine land and other degraded soil. There is a very rare species, Vachellia macranthera, occasionally cultivated. The sweet gum that oozes from wounds in the bark is a favorite food of many species of wildlife, including the lesser bushbaby and monkeys. A. ; Tsopito, C. M. ; Adogla-Bessa, T., 1998. It helps to water the tree monthly during extended periods of drought, but under normal conditions, it doesn’t need supplemental irrigation. )-A large, handsome tree, 70 to 140 feet high, with rigid, horizontal branches; trunk 3 to 5 feet in diameter. Vachellia farnesiana, also known as Acacia farnesiana, and previously Mimosa farnesiana, commonly known as sweet acacia, huisache or needle bush, is a species of shrub or small tree in the legume family, Fabaceae.It is deciduous over part of its range, but evergreen in most locales. Cape Gum. Young plants are frost sensitive. The trees are useful in helping to control erosion, and they grow well in poor, dry soil. AFZ, 2017; Aganga et al., 2000; Aganga et al., 2008; Groenewald et al., 1967; Halimani et al., 2005; Mapiye et al., 2009; Marume et al., 2012; Matlebyane et al., 2009; Mokoboki et al., 2005; Mokoboki et al., 2011; Mokoboki et al., 2011, Heuzé V., Tran G., Boudon A., Lebas F., 2019. Sweet thorn (Acacia karroo). The branches emerge rather low on the trunk. These values compare favorably with those of other indigenous Acacia species (Mapiye et al., 2011; Mokoboki et al., 2005; Ngwa et al., 2002; Aganga et al., 2000), and is quite high when compared to the 2-5% range observed in most tropical grasses during dry season (Brown et al., 2016). Sweet thorn (Acacia karroo Hayne or Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso) is a very variable and very thorny tree species that is widespread in Africa and grows to a height of 5-12 m. It is a multipurpose tree providing food, feed, commercial products, and environmental services. Since it is a legume that can fix nitrogen, it doesn’t need nitrogen fertilizer. Very long (up to 17 cm), straight, and conspicuous white spines are borne at the base of the leaf-stalk. ), Pure and Applied Biogeography, Chapter 6. Acacia Karoo. The tree gets its name from the sweet gum that oozes from wounds in the bark, which can be enjoyed by … It is also smaller. farnesiana and V. farnesiana var. Acacia karroo, like many Acacia species in Southern Africa, is a valuable source of forage for ruminants, particularly during dry periods, when it can provided a significant supply of protein compared to other available forages (Brown et al., 2016; Ngambu et al., 2013; Mapiye et al., 2011; Aganga et al., 2000). It is flat and has a crescent shape, constricted between the seeds. The flowers are ball-shaped. However, since most of the scientific literature refers to Acacia karroo, this latter taxon is used is the datasheet. It can also be fed to steers each morning before they graze poor quality forages. The curved catclaw-like thorns will get your attention if you brush against this shrub. Sweet Acacia has its place in any sunny shrub border or as an accent plant in any garden if located away from areas where children frequent, since the thorns can inflict severe pain. Read on to find out more about this lovely landscape tree that grows well under the most difficult Southwestern conditions. The thorns were used as sewing needles and even by naturalists to mount the insects they collected. The persistent fruits have a glossy coat and contain seeds which are cherished by birds and other wildlife. Sweet thorn provides environmental services (see Environmental impact) (Ecocrop, 2019; Fern, 2014; Orwa et al., 2009; Aubrey, 2002). Sweet thorns (Acacia karroo) are highly ornamental plants that you can grow as a multi-stemmed shrub, or prune to a tree with a single trunk. 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