its customers, and the sensing along the transmission lines is what makes the grid smart. 2012 - A business case for smart grid technologies: a systemic perspective. This one-way flow of information is expensive; the last 10% of generating capacity may be required as little as 1% of the time, and brownouts and outages can be costly to consumers. In this respect, different technological applications can be seen from the perspective of researchers and investors. • Maintain and improve the existing services efficiently. The electrical grid has functioned essentially the same way since its inception. lights, phone System, and grocery store operating during emergencies. Other solutions include utilizing transmission substations, constrained SCADA networks, policy based data sharing, and attestation for constrained smart meters. controls, computers, automation, and new technologies and equipment working together, but in There is a growing trend towards the use of TCP/IP technology as a common communication platform for smart meter applications, so that utilities can deploy multiple communication systems, while using IP technology as a common management platform. With smart technology, their stored power can be tapped to smooth peaks and troughs in electricity supply […] This typically involves setting up a lab with the smart grid devices, applications etc. [54] The National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap is the implementation document for the Grid 2030 vision. Markov processes have been used to model and study this type of system.[76]. A total of over $9 billion in Public/Private funds were invested as part of this program. If you already manage of standards and regulations, and information sharing between projects to ensure that the [103], The incorporation of digital communications and computer infrastructure with the grid's existing physical infrastructure poses challenges and inherent vulnerabilities. And you can save even more Tomoiagă, B.; Chindriş, M.; Sumper, A.; Sudria-Andreu, A.; Villafafila-Robles, R. Energy Future Coalition, "Challenge and Opportunity: Charting a New Energy Future," Appendix A: Working Group Reports, Report of the Smart Grid Working Group. MultiSpeak has created a specification that supports distribution functionality of the smart grid. Many smart grid bandwidth upgrades are paid for by over-provisioning to also support consumer services, and subsidizing the communications with energy-related services or subsidizing the energy-related services, such as higher rates during peak hours, with communications. [100] Additionally, even if utilities want to fully comply, they may find that it is too expensive to do so. Smart grid is a generic label for the application of computer intelligence and networking abilities to a dumb electricity distribution system. While the AC power control standards suggest powerline networking would be the primary means of communication among smart grid and home devices, the bits may not reach the home via Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) initially but by fixed wireless. The group has also spun out a 2030.1 effort drafting guidelines for integrating electric vehicles into the smart grid. The analysis can therefore be used to smooth out potential problems in the network. Grid is a way to address an aging energy Most opposition and concerns have centered on smart meters and the items (such as remote control, remote disconnect, and variable rate pricing) enabled by them. Surge impedance and Surge impedance loading (SIL) of Transmission line power outage occurs, Smart Grid technologies While traditionally load balancing strategies have been designed to change consumers' consumption patterns to make demand more uniform, developments in energy storage and individual renewable energy generation have provided opportunities to devise balanced power grids without affecting consumers' behavior. From 1970s to the 1990s, growing demand led to increasing numbers of power stations. : Cleantech News and Analysis «, Utility Perspective: Why Partner With Google PowerMeter? It is an essential part of marinating the developmental and proper usage of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) which is used for storage of electricity in the grid. [116] According to an article in the Boston Globe, Northeast Utilities' Western Massachusetts Electric Co. subsidiary actually attempted to create a "smart grid" program using public subsidies that would switch low income customers from post-pay to pre-pay billing (using "smart cards") in addition to special hiked "premium" rates for electricity used above a predetermined amount. 10.1016/j.rser.2016.08.002 - Smart grid technologies can be defined as self-sufficient systems that can find solutions to problems quickly in an available system that reduces the workforce and targets sustainable, reliable, safe and quality electricity to all consumers. Like See Deployments and attempted deployments below. [116] A spokesman for an environmental group supportive of smart grid plans and Western Massachusetts' Electric's aforementioned "smart grid" plan, in particular, stated "If used properly, smart grid technology has a lot of potential for reducing peak demand, which would allow us to shut down some of the oldest, dirtiest power plants... It’s a tool."[116]. [51] Stricter regulations for producing traditional energy resources from the government increases the difficulty of stay in business and increases the pressure on traditional energy companies to make the shift to renewable energy sources. [19] To motivate them to cut back use and perform what is called peak curtailment or peak leveling, prices of electricity are increased during high demand periods, and decreased during low demand periods. Roll-out of smart grid technology also implies a fundamental re-engineering of the electricity services industry, although typical usage of the term is focused on the technical infrastructure.[5]. It also examines the role of the prominent Smart Grid Technology market players involved in the industry including their corporate overview. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Smart Grid Investment Grant and Demonstrations Program funded special consumer behavior studies to examine the acceptance, retention, and response of consumers subscribed to time-based utility rate programs that involve advanced metering infrastructure and customer systems such as in-home displays and programmable communicating thermostats. The components of smart grid technology are based on hardware and software where the smart meter is the sub-category for hardware components and advanced metering infrastructure, grid asset management, smart grid security, and others are distinct sections of software components respectively. They are generally studied within the framework of complex systems. Deployment of Digital Technology in smart grids ensures the reliability, efficiency and accessibility to the consumers regarding all utilities which count towards the economic stability of the nation. Modernizing the grid to make it “smarter” and more resilient through the use of cutting-edge technologies, equipment, and controls that communicate and work together to deliver electricity more reliably and efficiently can greatly reduce the frequency and duration of power outages, reduce storm impacts, and restore service faster when outages occur. [26], Latency of the data flow is a major concern, with some early smart meter architectures allowing actually as long as 24 hours delay in receiving the data, preventing any possible reaction by either supplying or demanding devices.[27]. Additionally, as intrusions themselves can provide valuable information, it could be useful to analyze system logs and other records of their nature and timing. [28] Others, such as Silver Spring Networks[29] or Google,[30][31] are data integrators rather than vendors of equipment. A 2011 study from the Electric Power Research Institute concludes that investment in a U.S. smart grid will cost up to $476 billion over 20 years but will provide up to $2 trillion in customer benefits over that time. recognizes that our nation's sustained economic prosperity, quality of life, and global [57], GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the nation's electric power system. The earliest deployments of smart grids include the Italian system Telegestore (2005), the mesh network of Austin, Texas (since 2003), and the smart grid in Boulder, Colorado (2008). Power grids have been related to complex biological systems in many other contexts. [6] At that time, the grid was a centralized unidirectional system of electric power transmission, electricity distribution, and demand-driven control. In the US, the city of Austin, Texas has been working on building its smart grid since 2003, when its utility first replaced 1/3 of its manual meters with smart meters that communicate via a wireless mesh network. This could mean making trade-offs such as cycling on/off air conditioners or running dishwashers at 9 pm instead of 5 pm. A smart grid has capable of providing electrical power from multiple and widely distributed sources, like from wind turbines, solar power systems, and perhaps even plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. California was ranked number one. It performs two-way communication between power suppliers and consumers. | E Source", "The Case for Utilities to Bundle Their Energy Businesses—Before They're Cannibalized", "5 things utilities companies must do to future-proof themselves", "New Dynamics in Fossil Fuel and Renewable Energy for Rural America (No. [46] Indifference from the IT companies, both DSO's and utilities can use their market experience to give consumers energy-use advice and efficiency upgrades to create excellent customer service. For instance, high-speed computer analysis can predict blown fuses and correct for them, or analyze patterns that might lead to a power outage. The smart grid market in China is estimated to be $22.3 billion with a projected growth to $61.4 billion by 2015. This project to install an intelligent energy grid places Portugal and EDP at the cutting edge of technological innovation and service provision in Europe. [108], The City of Mannheim in Germany is using realtime Broadband Powerline (BPL) communications in its Model City Mannheim "MoMa" project. current electric grid was built in the 1890s and A smart grid is an electricity network enabling a two-way flow of electricity and data with digital communications technology enabling to detect, react and pro-act to changes in usage and multiple issues. Typically, storing energy during off-peak times eases high demand supply during peak hours. system in the United States. Beginning in 2000, Italy's Telegestore Project was the first to network large numbers (27 million) of homes using smart meters connected via low bandwidth power line communication. [86] As well as these industrial modernization benefits, smart grid features could expand energy efficiency beyond the grid into the home by coordinating low priority home devices such as water heaters so that their use of power takes advantage of the most desirable energy sources. it, and its cost. In percolation theory, random fuse networks have been studied. [132] [101], Policy-based data sharing utilizes GPS-clock-synchronized-fine-grain power grid measurements to provide increased grid stability and reliability. One application of ANNs is in demand forecasting. [123][124][125], The OpenADR standard was demonstrated in Bracknell, England, where peak use in commercial buildings was reduced by 45 percent. The operation of smart grid relies on a broad range of technology and infrastructure solutions. Finally, growing concern over terrorist attack in some countries has led to calls for a more robust energy grid that is less dependent on centralised power stations that were perceived to be potential attack targets.[9]. The first alternating current power grid system was installed in 1886 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. It also gives utility companies the ability to reduce consumption by communicating to devices directly in order to prevent system overloads. Grid innovation will be driven by a need-based approach focussed on identifying technology gaps to be filled to address future challenges, rather than by the traditional model of equipment suppliers developing standard solutions to address uniform needs. This will minimize outages and minimize the effects when they do happen. • Maintain or even improve the existing high levels of system reliability, quality and security of supply. The batteries in electric vehicles can be hooked up to the grid through charging points. The European Union Commission Task Force for Smart Grids also provides smart grid definition[10] as: "A Smart Grid is an electricity network that can cost efficiently integrate the behaviour and actions of all users connected to it – generators, consumers and those that do both – in order to ensure economically efficient, sustainable power system with low losses and high levels of quality and security of supply and safety. The utility space today is witnessing a significant transformation in every aspect from power generation to supply; smart grids are now increasingly being considered as a relevant measure to bring efficient transmission and restoration of electricity during power outages. The State Grid Corp., the Chinese Academy of Science, and General Electric intend to work together to develop standards for China's smart grid rollout. groundswell of digital and computerized equipment and technology dependent on it—and one reality. [45] A hybrid offering combining renewable energy sources with storing energy sources as coal and gas is showing the hybrid offering of a microgrid serving alone. Learn more about OE >>, Plug-In Electric IntelliGrid – Created by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), IntelliGrid architecture provides methodology, tools, and recommendations for standards and technologies for utility use in planning, specifying, and procuring IT-based systems, such as advanced metering, distribution automation, and demand response. In: 2014 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Cloud Computing and Intelligence Systems (CCIS) (2014). The roll-out of smart meter devices has been significant and smart grid technology continues to … [129], Hawaiian Electric Co. (HECO) is implementing a two-year pilot project to test the ability of an ADR program to respond to the intermittence of wind power. Power In Numbers Jim Walsh, general manager of the grid software business at GE Digital, is helping Silva and Byrne get there. Early forms of such demand side management technologies were dynamic demand aware devices that passively sensed the load on the grid by monitoring changes in the power supply frequency. One important question is whether consumers will act in response to market signals. It currently manages 200,000 devices real-time (smart meters, smart thermostats, and sensors across its service area), and expects to be supporting 500,000 devices real-time in 2009 servicing 1 million consumers and 43,000 businesses. [46], DSO's can focus on creating good customer engagement strategies to create loyalty and trust towards the customer. The Smart Grid is not just about utilities and technologies; it is about giving you the Smart grid technology promises this and many additional methods for reducing waste, lowering peak demand, improving grid reliability, and integrating renewable resources. In some areas, supply of electricity, especially at peak times, could not keep up with this demand, resulting in poor power quality including blackouts, power cuts, and brownouts. Smart grid initiatives seek to improve operations, maintenance and planning by making sure that all components of the electric grid can seamlessly exchange data. EPB in Chattanooga, TN is a municipally-owned electric utility that started construction of a smart grid in 2008, receiving a $111,567,606 grant from the US DOE in 2009 to expedite construction and implementation (for a total budget of $232,219,350). A brief introduction to what smart grid is, why it's better than what we have, and what's being done to implement it in the United States. [134][135], IEEE P2030 is an IEEE project developing a "Draft Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and Information Technology Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS), and End-Use Applications and Loads".[136][137]. the Smart Grid has the potential to help you save money by helping you to manage your Grid frequency could be used to communicate load information without the need of an additional telecommunication network, but it would not support economic bargaining or quantification of contributions. It involves about 60,000 metered customers, and contains many key functions of the future smart grid. [7], Since the early 21st century, opportunities to take advantage of improvements in electronic communication technology to resolve the limitations and costs of the electrical grid have become apparent. One of the first attempted deployments of "smart grid" technologies in the United States was rejected in 2009 by electricity regulators in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, a US state. A smarter grid will enable an infrastructure that needs to be upgraded or replaced. A technique to prevent this is load shedding by rolling blackout or voltage reduction (brownout).[16][17]. The bulk of smart grid technologies are already used in other applications such as manufacturing and telecommunications and are being adapted for use in grid operations.[32]. greater advantage of customer-owned power generators to produce power when it is not available [127][128] The Department of Energy awarded an $11.4 million grant to Honeywell to implement the program using the OpenADR standard. In 2009, the US smart grid industry was valued at about $21.4 billion – by 2014, it will exceed at least $42.8 billion. - This project is a demonstration across five Pacific Northwest states-Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. Nuclear power plants were sited for availability of cooling water. Smart grid is a generic label for the application of computer intelligence and networking abilities to a dumb electricity distribution system. The eEnergy Vermont consortium[117] is a US statewide initiative in Vermont, funded in part through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, in which all of the electric utilities in the state have rapidly adopted a variety of Smart Grid technologies, including about 90% Advanced Metering Infrastructure deployment, and are presently evaluating a variety of dynamic rate structures. Eliminating the fraction of demand that occurs in these spikes eliminates the cost of adding reserve generators, cuts wear and tear and extends the life of equipment, and allows users to cut their energy bills by telling low priority devices to use energy only when it is cheapest.[23]. Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies. Once this step is completed, some suggest that it makes sense to then complete an analysis of the potential consequences of the aforementioned failures or shortcomings. The GridWise Architecture Council Interoperability Context Setting Framework, V 1.1 defines necessary guidelines and principles. Deployment of Digital Technology in smart grids ensures the reliability, efficiency and accessibility to the consumers regarding all utilities which count towards the economic stability of the nation. In one study, power grids were compared to the dolphin social network. [83] A 2019 study from International Energy Agency estimates that the current (depriciated) value of the US electric grid is more than USD 1 trillion. Smart grid technologies emerged from earlier attempts at using electronic control, metering, and monitoring. Springer, Cham. leads the Department of Energy's efforts to ensure a resilient, and flexible electricity The “grid” is the electrical network serving every resident, business and infrastructure service in a city. [8], Monitoring and synchronization of wide area networks were revolutionized in the early 1990s when the Bonneville Power Administration expanded its smart grid research with prototype sensors that are capable of very rapid analysis of anomalies in electricity quality over very large geographic areas. Applications of a Smart Grid System. The UCA International User Group discusses and supports real world experience of the standards used in smart grids. Finally, fossil fuel-fired power stations were initially very polluting and were sited as far as economically possible from population centres once electricity distribution networks permitted it. In general information flows one way, from the users and the loads they control back to the utilities. [107], Hydro One, in Ontario, Canada is in the midst of a large-scale Smart Grid initiative, deploying a standards-compliant communications infrastructure from Trilliant. Siting of hydro-electric dams in mountain areas also strongly influenced the structure of the emerging grid. [61], Smart Grid Energy Research Center (SMERC) - Located at University of California, Los Angeles has dedicated its efforts to large-scale testing of its smart EV charging network technology - WINSmartEV™. The power grid has been described in this context as well. A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operation and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficient resources. In this paper, we present a systemic perspective aimed at establishing technical and economic synergies that may improve the business cases of individual different Smart Grid technologies and contribute to reverse the consumption-driven paradigm of the electricity sector. OASIS EnergyInterop' – An OASIS technical committee developing XML standards for energy interoperation. [13] Other countries are rapidly integrating this technology — China started having a comprehensive national WAMS when the past 5-year economic plan completed in 2012.[14]. However, this created a new problem: if the current flow or related effects across the network exceed the limits of any particular network element, it could fail, and the current would be shunted to other network elements, which eventually may fail also, causing a domino effect. meters," and other mechanisms, will allow you to see how much electricity you use, when you use In parallel, growing concerns over environmental damage from fossil-fired power stations has led to a desire to use large amounts of renewable energy. "[141], Historical development of the electricity grid, Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing, Provision megabits, control power with kilobits, sell the rest, IT companies disrupting the energy market, Create alliances with new entered technology companies, Yih-Fang Huang; Werner, S.; Jing Huang; Kashyap, N.; Gupta, V., ". The CIM provides for common semantics to be used for turning data into information. Some factors that ANNs consider when developing these sort of models: classification of load profiles of different customer classes based on the consumption of electricity, increased responsiveness of demand to predict real time electricity prices as compared to conventional grids, the need to input past demand as different components, such as peak load, base load, valley load, average load, etc. Because of the diverse range of factors there are numerous competing taxonomies and no agreement on a universal definition. The electrical grid has functioned essentially the same way since its inception. [18] A smart grid aims to manage these situations.[8]. These platforms, communications and control networks enables UCLA-led projects within the greater Los Angeles to be researched, advanced and tested in partnership with the two key local utilities, SCE and LADWP.[62]. Once mature, the Smart Grid will likely OpenADR is an open-source smart grid communications standard used for demand response applications. [8] It is thought that consumers and businesses will tend to consume less during high demand periods if it is possible for consumers and consumer devices to be aware of the high price premium for using electricity at peak periods. The smart grid can be defined as a smart electrical network that combines electrical network and smart digital communication technology. Hence Smart Grid is a generic label for the application of computer, intelligence and networking abilities to the existing dumb electricity distribution systems. The utilities attempt to meet the demand and succeed or fail to varying degrees (brownouts, rolling blackout, uncontrolled blackout). In order for grids to operate economically and reliably, demand forecasting is essential, because it is used to predict the amount of power that will be consumed by the load. The relatively low utilisation of these peaking generators (commonly, gas turbines were used due to their relatively lower capital cost and faster start-up times), together with the necessary redundancy in the electricity grid, resulted in high costs to the electricity companies, which were passed on in the form of increased tariffs. [91] Hackers have the potential to disrupt these automated control systems, severing the channels which allow generated electricity to be utilized. [66][67] The goal is to keep the system in balance, or to maintain phase synchronization (also known as phase locking). Working with the GridWise Alliance, the program invests in communications architecture and standards; simulation and analysis tools; smart technologies; test beds and demonstration projects; and new regulatory, institutional, and market frameworks. (5) Deployment of 'smart' technologies (real-time, automated, interactive technologies that optimize the physical operation of appliances and consumer devices) for metering, communications concerning grid operations and status, and distribution automation. Although the electric grid is considered an engineering marvel, we are stretching its Available at, Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA-2007), reducing the voltage when possible on distribution lines, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Smart Grid Investment Grant and Demonstrations Program, consumer behavior studies to examine the acceptance, retention, and response of consumers subscribed to time-based utility rate programs, December 2015 Ukraine power grid cyberattack, US Dept. Smart grid based on IoT and data technologies is prevailing and includes several important components: Smart sensors and meters. A smart grid is an electricity network based on digital technology that is used to supply electricity to consumers via two-way digital communication. Because power and communications companies are generally separate commercial enterprises in North America and Europe, it has required considerable government and large-vendor effort to encourage various enterprises to cooperate. • Allow consumers to play a part in optimising the operation of the system. [69] It is difficult for humans to predict the long term patterns in complex networks, so fuse or diode networks are used instead. [110], Sydney also in Australia, in partnership with the Australian Government implemented the Smart Grid, Smart City program. By the end of 2010, the system will serve 1.3 million customers in the province of Ontario. The culmination of this work was the first operational Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) in 2000. The grid’s technological capabilities will need to be reimagined, says SCE. 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