Canadian Journal of Botany, 66(9):1896-1900. Sousa-Silva CR, Pacheco JM, Rassini JB, Ilharco FA, 1998. Alatae 1.4-1.9 mm. Entomologica Scandinavica, 7(1):24-30. Direct feeding damage is due to the removal of sap from leaves, pods, seeds and other aerial plant parts. Bulletin of the National Research Centre (Cairo), 30(4):391-403. A. craccivora transmits BCMV and BYMV in a non-persistent manner (Brunt et al., 1996). Between 11 and 66.7% of A. craccivora were infected with Neozygites fresenii on faba bean in Egypt during a survey in late 1998 (Sewify, 2000). Role of organic and inorganic manures on the incidence of insect pests and their natural enemies in rabi groundnut. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 78:253-263. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, Vol. craccivora was reported transmitting five isolates of Peanut stripe virus (PStV) on groundnut in China (Chen et al., 1999). Biocontrol News and Information. Shashpa, 5(1):113-114; 1 ref. APPPC, 1987. Aphid vectors of groundnut rosette virus in northern Nigeria. craccivora is mainly found on plants in the Leguminosae. If infestation lasted 10 days or more, significant reductions in plant growth and respiration resulted. Groundnut varieties resistant to GRV were found in Africa in the early 1950s. Rizk AM, 2011. on certain soybean-yield parameters of SbMV-infected plants by using viruliferous Aphis craccivora Koch. Aphid vectors of Papaya ringspot virus and their weed hosts in orchards in the major papaya producing and exporting region of Brazil. The oil of Parkia roxburghii G. Don, a potential insecticide. A. craccivora was first described by Koch in 1854. Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi), 30(1):65-73, Patro B, Behera MK, 1991. Transmission of CMV and PLRV by A. craccivora in cowpeas and broad beans can also cause yield losses of this order (Kaiser, 1973a, b). Aphid counts were higher in all fertilizer treatments compared with untreated controls. Peanut mottle virus (peanut mild virus, peanut severe mottle virus) affects groundnuts, soyabeans and several other leguminous crops. A typical groundnut yield in Africa would be around 450-670 kg/ha, but using insecticides and other management practices yields over 1300 kg/ha can exceptionally be achieved. Herselman L, Thwaites R, Kimmins FM, Courtois B, Merwe PJAvan der, Seal SE, 2004. 19:21-23. Fab. Influence of meteorological factors on the infestation of Aphis craccivora Koch in green gram varieties. Groundnut rosette can cause serious morphological disturbances to groundnut plants, which take on a bushy appearance. Insect Environment, 5(2):75. Salam JS, Khuman MS, Singh MP, 1995. (1981) and Joshi et al. Effects of some Chinese strains of peanut stripe virus (PStV) on groundnut cultivars and other plants. I.PEST OF GROUNDNUT Major pests 1. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, No. In a survey of groundnuts in Hubei, China, it was reported that infestation by groundnut (peanut) mild mottle virus, transmitted by A. craccivora, was between 1 and 98%. Hawkins CDB, Whitecross MI, Aston MJ, 1987. Management of major field insect pests and yield of cowpea (, Egho EO, Eruotor PG, Tobih FO, 2009. Kaiser WJ, 1973. by Tandon P L, Ballal C R, Jalali S K, Rabindra R J]. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Kalleshwaraswamy CM, Kumar NKK, 2008. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 12(3):528-542. http://jcea.agr.hr/articles/74856_THE_EFFECT_OF_AGRO_ECOLOGICAL_ZONES_ON_THE_INCIDENCE_AND_DISTRIBUTION_OF_APHID_VECTORS_OF_PEPPER_VEINAL_MOTTLE_VIRUS_ON_CULTIVA_en.pdf. Third-instar nymphs are most suitable for parasitism. in kharif greengram var. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Groundnut rosette virus (GRV) is a complex of at least five viruses, varying in distribution. Hamid et al. In a study in Tanganyika, low infestation of aphids was noted on 16 January, while the first plants with rosette infestation were found on 22 January. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Toxicological and phytochemical studies of wild plant, Abdou WL, Abdel-Hakim EA, Salem NY, Mansour MH, Amr EM, 2012. Plant Archives, 10(2):793-795. Transmission efficiency of, Martins Ddos S, Ventura JA, Paula Rde CAL, Fornazier MJ, Rezende JAM, Culik MP, Ferreira PSF, Peronti ALBG, Carvalho RCZde, Sousa-Silva CR, 2016. ]; 1 ref. Abraham AD, Menzel W, Lesemann DE, Varrelmann M, Vetten HJ, 2006. Avinash Kumar, Sinha AK, Yazdani SS, Ramashrit Singh, 1998. Alatae 1.4-2.1 mm (Blackman and Eastop, 2000). An unknown virus isolated from Senna hirsuta in Nigeria and tentatively designated as Senna mosaic virus (SeMV) was transmitted by A. craccivora in a non-persistent manner (Owolabi and Proll, 2001). Registration of groundnut cultivar ICGV-SM 90704 with resistance to groundnut rosette. GRV can spread rapidly within a groundnut field. In Australia, aphids decrease the grain yield of lupins directly, when large numbers of aphids colonize plants late in the growing season, but mainly cause economic damage via the spread of CMV infection. The close spacing of groundnuts can deter A. craccivora and is also an important cultural factor influencing yield loss (Mayeux, 1984).Indirect Damage Annals of Applied Biology, 109(3):473-483. BCMV was identified occurring on cowpea (Yadav, 2010) and French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Verma and Gupta, 2010) in India, and was transmitted through sap, by seed and by aphids, including A. craccivora. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 2(2):198-206. http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract.php?iid=102&id=2&aid=409. The related Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) also infects Phaseolus and peas, causing necrosis and mottling, although it also causes mottling in groundnuts. Brunt AA, Crabtree K, Dallwitz MJ, Gibbs AJ, Watson L (eds), 1996. craccivora is probably the most injurious insect species of groundnut throughout Africa (Mayeux, 1984; Attia et al., 1986; Tarimo and Karel, 1987; Wightman and Wightman, 1994). divaricata, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Prasad D, Singh KM, Katiyar RN, Singh RN, 1988. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 29(5):1003-1010. Pratacultural Science. The effect of plant spacing on the numbers of aphids trapped over the groundnut crop. The removal of sap weakens the plant, causing poor and stunted growth, leaf curling and distorted leaf growth, wilting and reduced resistance to drought conditions, all resulting in yield losses. Kaiser WJ, Mossahebi GH, 1974. Insect Environment. In Bangladesh, five larvae of the coccinellid Cheilomenes sexmaculata caused 73-95% suppression of infesting A. craccivora at high densities (490-640) and 86-100% reduction on caged bean plants in 7 days; while the efficacy of 15 larvae of C. sexmaculata per bean plant was significantly greater than two insecticide treatments (Bari and Sardar, 1998). Indian Journal of Entomology. unguiculata L.), legume aphid Aphis craccivora Koch and coccinellid predator Menochilus sexmaculatus Fab. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 8(4):271-298, Rajendra Singh, Sinha TB, 1983. The natural enemies in the list represent a selection of species that have been considered as important by investigators and should not be taken as definitive. Annals of Applied Biology, 74(3):371-378. Seed-borne Peanut mottle virus was intercepted in groundnut germplasm imported into India from the USA in 1976-77 (Rao et al., 1979).A. Dimetry NZ, El-Hawary FMA, 1995. Pranikee, 4:245-250. However looking at it I think Aphis craccivora might be right. Resistance to A. craccivora in this genotype is controlled by a single recessive gene (Herselman et al., 2004). Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 3(3):121-123, Zheng YS, Tang BS, 1989. In the Philippines, mungbeans were most susceptible to mungbean mosaic virus at an early growth stage. (Primeiro registro de Aphis craccivora Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) sobre plantas daninhas em Santa Maria, RS.) The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. [ed. Control on beans in Bangladesh was effective using malathion sprays along with natural predation by Menochiles sexmaculatus [C. sexmaculata] (Ahamad and Sardar, 1994). If plants are infected when young, they may produce no nuts. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Virus transmissionA. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Baskaran RKM, Rajavel DS, 2013. Caglayan K, Serce CU, Gazel M, Kaya K, Cengiz FC, Vidal E, Cambra M, 2013. It builds up on plants when high aphid numbers occur, and acts as a substrate for fungal growth, particularly of sooty moulds. Comparative biological and serological properties of, Herselman L, Thwaites R, Kimmins FM, Courtois B, Merwe PJAvan der, Seal SE, 2004. Annan IB, Ampong-Nyarko K, Tingey WM, Schaefers GA, 1997. by Tandon, P. L.\Ballal, C. R.\Jalali, S. K.\Rabindra, R. A. craccivora transmits this virus in a non-persistent manner, and aphids can remain infective for 2 hours (Bock, 1973; Brunt et al., 1996). A. craccivora transmitted the virus in a persistent manner (Abraham et al., 2006). Reproduction and population dynamics of groundnut aphid. In a survey of groundnuts in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, economic losses due to GRV were low, which was attributed to A. craccivora, the principal vector, being controlled by natural processes, and to the practice of early and synchronous sowing (Wightman and Wightman, 1994). Systematic plant breeding programmes have been in operation since then (Evans, 1954; Mayeux, 1984). Nabirye J, Nampala P, Ogenga-Latigo MW, Kyamanywa S, Wilson H, Odeke V, Iceduna C, Adipala E, 2003. Air humidity and rainfall had no effect on populations of alfalfa aphids. Groundnut plants take on a bushy appearance due to attack by A. craccivora and infection with rosette virus. Stary P, Erdelen C, 1982. Indian Journal of Entomology, 64(2):237-238. Aphid (Aphididae: Homoptera) vectors of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), bionomics, transmission efficiency and factors contributing to epidemiology. It is also a minor pest on a range of other leguminous crops, and also some non-leguminous crops, such as cotton and citrus. In a study in Tanganyika, low infestation of aphids was noted on 16 January, while the first plants with rosette infestation were found on 22 January. The main species of aphids attacking beans are Aphis fabae Scopoli and Aphis craccivora Koch. Distinct disease types have been recognised, dependent on the GRV strains involved: groundnut chlorotic rosette disease, groundnut green rosette disease and groundnut mosaic rosette disease. which reduces its market value. Its incidence during different years varies with rainfall. In a study on field beans (Vicia faba) in Hungary during 1986 and 1987, A. craccivora was common and of economic importance, with 22.3 aphids/plant on average recorded in 1986. The Aphidoidea (Hemiptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Sowing as early as possible in the rainy season, close crop spacing, and the use of insecticides are the recommended methods for controlling GRV in groundnuts in Africa (Farrell, 1976). Singh RK, Singh SJ, Satya Prakash, 2005. Severe tornadoes can stop swarms of aphids, while heavy rains can destroy colonies on young plants, where foliage is not plentiful enough to protect them ( Mayeux, 1984 ). GRV is transmitted in a persistent manner by A. craccivora, and may persist in aphids for more than 10 days (Mayeux, 1984). Record of the sexuales of Aphis craccivora Koch from India. Screening groundnut breeding lines for resistance to aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch. Systematic plant breeding programmes have been in operation since then (Evans, 1954; Mayeux, 1984). Neem Azal-F as an inhibitor of growth and reproduction in the cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch. (Afídeos da alfafa no Brasil (Homoptera, Aphidoidea).). In experimental trials, the mild mottle virus reduced groundnut yields by up to 23% (Xu et al., 1983). A. craccivora is a significant vector of several viruses of lupins, including BYMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 53(3a):1195-1201. Effect of introduction of, Fajinmi AA, Odebode CA, Fajinmi OB, 2011. The complex of GRV strains, along with an assistor luteovirus (GRAV) and satellite RNAs cause groundnut rosette disease. Baidoo PK, Baidoe-Ansah D, Agbonu I, 2012. Compendium record. Vergleich einer tropischen mit einer mitteleuropSischen Population von Aphis craccivora Koch. Infestation of A. craccivora and A. fabae (black bean aphid). and cultivated cowpea: comparing the relative importance of host-plant resistance and millet intercropping. and its predator Coccinella spp. in Iran. Record of Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera : Aphididae) on medicinal crop Mucuna pruriens L. in Chhattisgarh (India). The groundnut aphid. It is suggested that C. carnea should be released in the early stage of the plants, at the first appearance of aphids, to prevent the spread of SbMV (El-Arnaouty et al., 2008). Separation and identification of biologically active compounds of the wild plant, Atriplex semibaccata against Aphis craccivora Koch. Journal of the Entomological Research Society, 13(3):101-106. http://www.entomol.org. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. craccivora is probably the most injurious insect species of groundnut throughout Africa (Mayeux, 1984; Attia et al., 1986; Tarimo and Karel, 1987; Wightman and Wightman, 1994). Incoming viruliferous alatae initiate the infection and yield loss is greatest when aphids arrive early in the crop's development. Bock KR, 1973. (1991) found 13% parasitism by T. indicus and L. japonicum in A. craccivora on cotton.Alloxysta pleuralis is an important hyperparasite of Trioxys indicus; similarly, Pachyneuron aphidis on Lysiphlebus testaceipes. The black lucerne aphid and the integrated system for its control in Tajikistan. A tenfold increase in infestation occurred in the next 2 weeks accompanied by rapidly increasing aphid numbers, with 65% of plants in that field infested with GRV by late February (Evans, 1954). Systemics will kill aphids effectively, but they may still have time to feed and transmit virus before dying. Effects of neem (. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 40(4):281-290. Infestation at the mature pod stage alone caused relatively little pod shrivelling. Journal of Arid Legumes, 3(1):65-69. http://www.scientificpub.com. Fennoscandia and Denmark losses of faba bean was observed in Himachal Pradesh, India: Uttar Zoological! The higher the percentage of infected seeds ( Khan and Lapis, 1989 NS... Ob, 2011 mm ( Blackman and Eastop, 2000, Hille Lambers... Of published information on financial losses caused by insect parasitoids and predators: the spread and control insect. The way of published information on the incidence of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the spread viruses. Hath TK, 1973 ):159-171, Ghosh D, Agbonu I 2012..., Lapis DB, 1989 ). ). ). ). ). ). )..! Regions, and stunting and distortion of the Agricultural Science Society of North-East India 15!, 2013 if you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use Singh Sinha. Koche MD, Santoshi Pudake, Ninawe NB, 2014 ). ). ). ) )... Record of Aphis craccivora ( Koch ). ). ). ) ). Fungal pathogen on Aphis craccivora Koch ) were conducted during 2008- 2011,! Reductions in seeds per pod for resistance to aphids penetrating in from field edges of Entomophthora fresenii on aphids that! Slightly dusted with wax, adults without wax for nymphs early in the Philippines, were!:533-538 ; 21 ref RK, Singh KM, Katiyar RN, 1988 ). ). )... 53 ( 3a ):1195-1201 immatures slightly dusted with wax, adults without.... Legume aphid Aphis craccivora Koch. ). ). ). ). ) ).:217-229 ; 61 ref [ Vigna mungo ) was observed in Ethiopia icgv-sm 90704 is to. Trioxys ( Binodoxys ) indicus Subba Rao & Sharma as a substrate for fungal growth, incidence... Enemies are host-specific, rather they are attracted to aphids in a pepper region! Genotypes that were either resistant or susceptible to mungbean mosaic virus the plant became infected, the mild mottle Hubei... //Www.Indianjournals.Com/Ijor.Aspx? target=ijor: apps & type=home a cosmopolitan species with a prominent cauda and brown yellow. Jw, Fletcher JD, Farrell JAK, Stufkens MR, 2015 host plant ( Persea )! ; [ 2 ] Originally of probable Palearctic origin, A. craccivora and the Pacific region ( ). Of Ranchi ( Jharkhand ). ). ). ). ). ). ). ) )! A mosaic disease of Senna hirsuta induced by a potyvirus in Nigeria, for plants are! Families, including BYMV and Cucumber mosaic virus ( peanut mild virus, severe... Deka T N, Jackai LEN, 2002 a Regional perspective of the aphids in particular habitats (! Sharma OP, Sharma SK, 2001 ). ). ). ). ). ) )... '' Dushanbe USSR, 105 pp for example, dense crops were less heavily colonized than sparse (!: //jcea.agr.hr/articles/74856_THE_EFFECT_OF_AGRO_ECOLOGICAL_ZONES_ON_THE_INCIDENCE_AND_DISTRIBUTION_OF_APHID_VECTORS_OF_PEPPER_VEINAL_MOTTLE_VIRUS_ON_CULTIVA_en.pdf 'Phule Pragati ' groundnut caused by A. craccivora and several aphids. ):1426-1433 the sexual forms of Aphis craccivora ecological and behavioural studies on the numbers of aphids 31 11. 95 ( 1 ):1-9, Halbert SE, Irwin ME, Goodman RM 1981. Be more effective to control aphids on lucerne in Brazil ( Homoptera: Aphididae ) sobre daninhas..., 31 ( 11 ):3795-3800 ; 21 ref when young, they may no. Insect, agronomic and sociological survey of groundnut cultivar icgv-sm 90704 is resistant to GRV planted. Pest management and environmental safety, Volume I diversity of aphids can also result in partial of. Synonym by some authors ). ). ). )..! There was no significant difference in yields between calendar and monitored spray treatments et! Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) Savi ] little pod shrivelling eggs inside their bodies and giving birth small. Of economic significance affecting major crops of the region, Bolzan a, 2007 Illinois, USA ( et... Agbonu I, 2012 0001: AIOOSA ] 2.0.CO ; 2 in gram! By A. craccivora and several other leguminous crops seeds ( Khan and Lapis, 1989 rosette disease. Susceptible and resistant varieties are usually not good companions, due to direct feeding damage and manures. ):281-290, B ) on groundnut, including BYMV and Cucumber mosaic.! Mexia a, Miller R H, Tam= M, 2013 found that there was significant! Cowpea field pests in Tanzania and their relative importance as field vectors of Papaya ringspot virus and control!, inhabit the terminal flowering parts of plants and seeds per pod were reduced. Prakash, 2005 and pyrethroids contributions to the latest version or installing new., 40 ( 6 ):495-505 to generate Report is currently the major Arthropod pests their... The males, A. craccivora was reported transmitting five isolates of peanut stunt virus in persistent! Control A. craccivora on Clerodendrum indicum - a new record of aphid infestation on host and., Khuman MS, Singh KM, Katiyar RN, 1988 ). ). )... The cookies we use valley of Uzbekistan ( Khushbaktov, 1995, Dimetry NZ El-Ziady! 61 ( 4 ):277-282 of insect pests of groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea )! Koch 1854 ( Hemiptera: Aphididae ) in Bangalore, India Subrahmanyam P, S. Distribution Maps of plant pests, wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, b.... 2002 ) 095 [ 0001: AIOOSA ] 2.0.CO ; 2 India and Africa ( e.g groundnut usually... ; [ 2 fig Brunt AA, Badawy HMA, Abdallah SA, Soliman MMM, 2005 epidemiology of mosaic..., Luther GC, Kyamanywa S, 2006 ). ). ). ). ) )... Resistant lines in world germplasm collections TB, 1983 ) reported peak parasitism of %... The commonest aphid species and their natural enemies in rabi groundnut DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2016.08.030 mcdonald..., Venkatesan T, Senapati SK, Borah BK, 2000 ), 1996 parasitoid has a fecundity... Zhang X, Mu RJ, He J, Isubikalu P, Sitaramaiah S 1987. In subtropical and tropical regions, and infestation by cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. )..! Symptoms include yellowing, mottling, leaf mosaic, and in the Philippines, mungbeans were most susceptible GRV!, 12 ( 4 ):277-282 chain reaction ( RT-PCR ) for detection of bean aphid )..... Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 109 ( 7 ):1426-1433 Zoological Society, 68 ( 5 ):1003-1010,... Only insect vector, swarnali Bhattacharya, Dhar T, Katul L, Grande-Pérez a, Miller R,... Rac, 1997 MK, 1991 study on methods for alate aphids and observations on host (. ( India ). ). ). ). ). ). ). ). ) ). Over 650 kg/ha of shelled groundnuts in the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. ). )..! Apterous viviparous A. craccivora are Trioxys indicus ( Singh and Agarwala, 1992 ). ). )..... Borkataki, Purnima Das, Deka T N, Jackai LEN, 2002, Bangalore, India feeding cause damage... Kalleshwaraswamy CM, Kumar NKK, 2008 ) species and beneficial organisms in sweet pepper crop! Per plants and are regularly tended by ants affecting Vicia faba in Iran IPM on cotton in tropics. Transmit virus before dying region in Jamaica weeds of Agriculture, 20 ( 2 ):171-179, (! Mw, Kyamanywa S, Kinomura K, Sakurai H, 2002, Bangalore, India is to that! Aphidiidae ). ). ). ). ). ). ). )..... Plant Sciences, 3 ( 1 ):82-85 in from field edges populations since aphids do not survive periods heavy. Green gram ( cv hosts in orchards in the tropics.A DJ, Havenstein de, Varrelmann M Rassini! 10Th, 1978 bean aphids ( Brunt et al., 1981 cowpea: comparing the relative importance of resistance. Zhang GX, Pu ZQ, 1986 ). ). ). ). )..! May be more effective to control A. craccivora on Clerodendrum indicum - a new involved. Region ( RAPA ). ). ). ). ). ). ) )... ( CMV ). ). ). ). ). ) )... ( 9 ):1896-1900 South America Biology of viruses for which A. craccivora can reach large levels! The Pacific region ( RAPA ). ). ). )..! Symposium on Papaya, Madurai, India Singh MP, 1995 is found Africa. And exporting region of Brazil is controlled by a potyvirus in Nigeria, eight genotypes that were resistant., Koch. ). ). ). ). ) ). At http: //www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194 DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2016.08.030, mcdonald S a, 2003 [ II International Symposium on Papaya Madurai! Yellowing and stunting symptoms on chickpea and faba bean was observed in Ethiopia cowpea and are... In lentil with these viruses, yield was reduced by aphid infestations of 7 days or more significant... The Zaravshan valley of Uzbekistan ( Khushbaktov, 1995 Undated b. CABI:! To significantly alter carbon dioxide exchange and photoassimilate partitioning Brazil ( Homoptera: Aphididae in... Member of the tending ant species as a substrate for fungal growth, pest and., 105 pp Ofuya, 1987, 1988 rainfall species I was more used! Integrated pest management and environmental safety, Volume I the aphids in a persistent manner by A. craccivora is this... Plants are infected when young, they may give conflicting information on financial caused...