The consequences o… Dubcek wanted to liberalize his nation and had many plans for reforms, most of which he was unable to initiate. The Warsaw Pact . James H. Wolfe The Warsaw Pact was a mutual defense treaty between the Soviet Union (USSR) and seven Soviet satellite nations of Eastern Europe signed in Warsaw, Poland, on May 14, 1955, and disbanded in 1991. Soviet leaders, like many European countries on both sides of the Iron Curtain, feared Germany being once again a military power and a direct threat. Warsaw Pact, formally Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, (May 14, 1955–July 1, 1991) treaty establishing a mutual-defense organization (Warsaw Treaty Organization) composed originally of the Soviet Union and Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. The Warsaw Treaty Organization, 1955 The Warsaw Treaty Organization (also known as the Warsaw Pact) was a political and military alliance established on May 14, 1955 between the Soviet Union and several Eastern European countries. Albania (2009) Croatia (2009) Czechoslavakia. But in both countries, 1968 gave birth to a new political consciousness. ", Warsaw Pact: Definition, History, and Significance, The Warsaw Pact: Late Twentieth Century Russian Tool. Popular Quizzes Today. The symposium was held as both a … Therefore, although ostensibly an international collective security alliance, the USSR dominated the Warsaw Treaty armed forces, analogous to the United States' domination of the NATO alliance. [28][41] Emblematic was the position of British General Hastings Ismay, a fierce supporter of NATO expansion. The Warsaw Pact was primarily put in place as a consequence of the rearming of West Germany inside NATO. This fear caused Czechoslovakia to attempt to create a security pact with Poland and East Germany. Yet the Polish government reserved publication of 100 documents, pending their military declassification. The Warsaw Pact was a collective defence treaty established by the Soviet Union and seven other Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania (Albania withdrew in 1968). Or maybe you’re just pretty well-versed in your 20th century history and want to expand that knowledge? "Germany Divided: From the Wall to Reunification." The Warsaw Pact. [36], Consequently, Molotov, fearing that the EDC would be directed in the future against the USSR and "seeking to prevent the formation of groups of European States directed against other European States",[37] made a proposal for a General European Treaty on Collective Security in Europe "open to all European States without regard as to their social systems"[37] which would have included the unified Germany (thus rendering the EDC obsolete). The Warsaw Pact formally existed for another couple of years until 1991—just months before the USSR disbanded—when the organization was officially dissolved in Prague. The alignment of nearly every European nation into one of the two opposing camps formalized the political division of the European continent that had tak… [71], In November 2005, the Polish government opened its Warsaw Treaty archives to the Institute of National Remembrance, which published some 1,300 declassified documents in January 2006. The Warsaw Pact or the Warsaw Treaty is an agreement between 14 May 1955 and 1991, which led to the defense of the Eastern Bloc countries under the leadership of the USSR. [32] Proposals for the reunification of Germany were nothing new: earlier on 20 March 1952, talks about a German reunification, initiated by the so-called 'Stalin Note', ended after the United Kingdom, France, and the United States insisted that a unified Germany should not be neutral and should be free to join the European Defence Community (EDC) and rearm. A year later, the Member States agreed that USSR Army troops stationed on their territories should leave. It was a military alliance of communist countries. The Warsaw Pact allowed for the Red Army to be based in member states. [55] The Soviet government agreed to station troops in Mongolia in 1966. Eventually, seven countries came together to form the Warsaw Pact: In Warsaw, Albania, the Democratic Republic of Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and Russia convened to sign a contract. History Quiz / Warsaw Pact Members Random History or General Knowledge Quiz Can you name the members of the former Warsaw Pact? The Polish freedom movement of 1968 lost its confrontation with police violence; the Prague Spring was crushed by the armies of five Warsaw Pact members. Both NATO and the Warsaw Pact led to the expansion of military forces and their integration into the respective blocs. The Pact lasted until the end of the Cold War when some members quit in 1991, following the collapse of the Eastern bloc and political changes in the Soviet Union. The founding signatories to the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance consisted of the following communist governments: Mongolia: In July 1963 the Mongolian People's Republic asked to join the Warsaw Pact under Article 9 of the treaty. On 25 February 1991, at a meeting in Hungary, the Pact was declared at an end by the defense and foreign ministers of the six remaining member states. Matt Rosenberg is an award-winning geographer and the author of "The Handy Geography Answer Book" and "The Geography Bee Complete Preparation Handbook. [66] On 1 July 1991, in Prague, the Czechoslovak President Václav Havel[67] formally ended the 1955 Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance and so disestablished the Warsaw Treaty after 36 years of military alliance with the USSR. Albania withdrew from the pact in 1968. In all of that time, there was never a direct conflict between the organization and NATO. [34] [5][6][21][22][23] As the Soviet Union already had bilateral treaties with all of its eastern satellites, the Pact has been long considered 'superfluous',[24] and because of the rushed way in which it was conceived, NATO officials labeled it as a 'cardboard castle'. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. [11] These states protested strongly against the re-militarization of West Germany. The Warsaw Pact was based around the principle of cooperation and mutual assistance for its member states, including both military agreement and economic cooperation. Background: Counter-terrorism expert, and member of the ‘White Tiger’ 707 th Special Mission Group of the Republic of Korea Army Special Warfare Command. The Warsaw Pact was created in response to the decision to allow the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). "In reaction to West Germany's NATO accession, the Soviet Union and its Eastern European client states formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955." History Quiz / Warsaw Pact Members Random History or General Knowledge Quiz Can you name the members of the former Warsaw Pact? [26][27][28], The Soviet request to join NATO arose in the aftermath of the Berlin Conference of January–February 1954. In November 2005, the Polish government opened its Warsaw Treaty archives to the Institute of National Remembrance who published some 1,300 declassified documents in January 2006. The Warsaw Pact is a pact of military cooperation and alliances between multiple countries, specifically the Soviet Union, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, and Czechoslovakia.In Wargame: Red Dragon, the Warsaw Pact is named as REDFOR, acknowledging allies such as China and North Korea which are not part of the Warsaw Pact.. The WTO has several associates. The initial members of the Warsaw Pact were the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. [51], One of the founding members, East Germany, was allowed to re-arm by the Soviet Union and the National People's Army was established as the armed forces of the country to counter the rearmament of West Germany. The Warsaw Pact, so named because the treaty was signed in Warsaw, included the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria as members. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe. McAdams, A. James. Box 264 Warsaw MO 65355 US. Poland. The Warsaw Pact membership comprises of the majority of Eastern European nations, mostly Soviet satellite states. However, there were many proxy wars, especially between the Soviet Union and the United States in places such as Korea and Vietnam. After World War II, the Soviet Union sought to control as much of Central and Eastern Europe as it could. [72][75][unreliable source? ), Kramer, Mark N. "Civil-military relations in the Warsaw Pact, The East European component,". Princeton University Press, 1992 and 1993. Between 1989 and 1991, the Communist parties in most of the countries in the Warsaw Pact were ousted. Throughout the following 20 years, the seven Warsaw Pact countries outside the USSR each joined NATO (East Germany through its reunification with West Germany; and the Czech Republic and Slovakia as separate countries), as did the Baltic states which had been part of the Soviet Union. Member States Edit. field training exercise war game and metamorphosed into official Warsaw Treaty battle doctrine, until the late 1980s – which is why the Polish People's Republic was a nuclear weapons base,[74][failed verification] first, to 178, then, to 250 tactical-range rockets, though these numbers may differ. Its policy was also driven by ideological and geostrategic reasons. On Aug. 20, 1968, 250,000 Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia in what was known as Operation Danube. In 2005, the Polish government made available over 1,000 previously classified documents from the days of the pact, including some detailing a nuclear war plan. The Warsaw Treaty Organization[1] (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance,[2] commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP),[3] was a collective defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union and seven other Eastern Bloc socialist republics of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War. [20] The Warsaw Pact was put in place as a consequence of the rearming of West Germany inside NATO. Before the creation of the Warsaw Pact, Czechoslovak leadership, fearful of a rearmed Germany, sought to create a security pact with East Germany and Poland. East Germany withdrew from the Pact following German reunification in 1990. "1954: Soviet Union suggests it should join NATO to preserve peace in Europe. The Warsaw pact itself was pretty clear about who the members were. The Warsaw Pact was created to counter the Democratic NATO during the 'Cold War' (1947-1975). 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