As Gustav II Adolf (King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden) waited in Werben, Germany, Johann Tserclaes, the Count of Tilly (Field Marshall of the Catholic League’s forces) received a message from Field Marshall Pappenheim requesting that he come to Magdeburg and aid in its defense against the Swedes. The disastrous defeat (1626) of Christian IV of Denmark, who had intervened in Germany without such an assurance, justified his caution, but it also made Swedish intervention inevitable. They already resented Gustavus’s dictatorial methods as well as the Swedish army’s practice of making war support war. Professor of Modern History, Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1954–73. It was one of the healthiest features of Swedish society during this period that the nobility served the state, prepared to sacrifice even its privileges in the interests of the country. Gustavus Adolphus, also known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632, and is credited for the rise of Sweden as a great European power. Up to a point, it was highly successful. Hans Georg von Arnim, the military commander of the Protestant troops, realized that he was militarily powerless against the superiority of the enemy and asked – or compelled, to be more specific – his employer John George of Saxony on September 11, 1631, to form an … Thirty Years’ War was fought in Central Europe from year 1618 to 1648. share. In 1621, taking advantage of a Turkish attack upon Poland, Gustavus renewed the war with Sigismund. After Gustavus was killed at Lützen (1632), the Swedish Chancellor Oxenstierna financed the Heilbronn League of German Protestants (1633), which broke up after a heavy military defeat at Nördlingen in 1634. Victories in two of the wars brought new territory, expanding the Swedish empire. By reducing the size of the tactical unit, by opposing a flexible linear formation to the cumbrous massive formations of his opponents, by solving (at least for his time) the perennial problem of combining infantry and cavalry, missile weapons and shock, and, lastly, by producing the first easily maneuverable light artillery, he completed the transformation of the art of war begun by the Dutch commander Maurice of Nassau, prince of Orange, earlier in the century. He was a brilliant leader He was courageous He organized the most modern army of its time Under his leadership, Sweden wins victories. In this emergency, Gustavus and Christian joined forces to send an expedition to Stralsund, the last remaining Protestant bastion in Pomerania, which arrived just in time to prevent its capture by Wallenstein (1628). Many Germans feared, and some Swedish diplomats now believed, that a final settlement must probably entail the deposition of the German emperor Ferdinand II and the election of Gustavus as emperor in his place. Leading up to the outbreak of war, there was an uneasy truce in the Holy Roman Empire between the Catholic emperor, who had limited power outside of his own ancestral (Habsburg) … In the ensuing months Gustavus swept triumphantly through central Germany, systematically consolidating his base areas as he advanced; by Christmas he had established himself at Mainz. Gustavus Adolphus Battle Song Story Out of the heroic struggles of the Thirty Years' War, which saved for the world the fruit of the sixteenth-century Reformation, there stands forth one gigantic son of the Vikings, the noble Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden. It is the aforementioned aspects that … Posted by. Jun 8, 2017 - Explore Bill Wilks's board "Gustavus Adolphus" on Pinterest. His death came at a moment when it had already begun to appear that the victory he believed to be essential to the stability of Germany and the security of Sweden might be more difficult to achieve than he had imagined. The MILITARY HISTORY & WARFARE collection includes books from the British Library digitised by Microsoft. November 16, 1632 Lutzen; Gustavus Adolphus crushed main field army (Battle of Lutzen) • Gustavus Adolphus died in battle • Richelieu – Prince of Catholic Church; led France into the 30 years war • 1635 Richelieu interest for French national interest; Drove France to war to protect French national interest • Powers/ states help and protect the other’s national interest; it would … Home » The Thirty Years War » Gustavus Adolphus and Sweden. It was Gustavus’ decision to enter into the Thirty Years’ War in 1630 that he is most famous for internationally. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. An older generation of historians saw him, as his contemporaries did, simply as the Protestant Hero, the “Lion of the North”; later, he was viewed as having been moved by purely political considerations; and in recent days he has been characterized as an economic imperialist who sought to remedy Sweden’s poverty by seizing control of the whole Baltic coastline, and thus to monopolize trade between Russia and western Europe. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Form of Government of 1634 summed up these reforms in a general statute giving Sweden a central administration more modern and efficient than that of any other European country. The whole reign of Gustavus Adolphus, from 1611, had been time of almost constant war: Sweden fought against Russia in Ingria (1611-1617), against Poland in Livonia (1617-1618 and 1621-1626) and in … In 1627 Gustavus Adolphus , the “Lion of the North”, had compared the revived Roman Catholic Church to the sea … Create a second … Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. It was, however, dearly bought, for while leading a cavalry charge Gustavus became separated from his men and perished in the melee. The first decade of the reign, therefore, saw the creation of the Supreme Court (1614) and the establishment of the Treasury and the Chancery as permanent administrative boards (1618), and by the end of the reign an Admiralty and a War Office had been created—each presided over by one of the great officers of state. But he had lived long enough to deflect the course of German history. best top new controversial old q&a. That conflict, the Thirty Years’ War, saw the most horrific acts of violence, the greatest loss of life, and the greatest suffering among both soldiers and civilians of any of the religious wars of the period. And in the 1620s a thorough reform professionalized local government and placed it securely under the control of the crown. The charter that the Estates extorted from Gustavus when he became king in 1611 might well have entailed the virtual subjection of the monarchy to the council and the high aristocracy. 96% Upvoted. The prospect of success depended upon the outcome of the campaign of 1632, which was designed to cripple Bavaria as a preliminary to the conquest of Vienna in 1633. The savage European conflict known to history as the Thirty Years’ War was in its 13th year. King Christian IV 8. 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