The Czechoslovak Legions had been part of the Russian Army and numbered around 30,000 troops by October 1917. He was able to restore order to the dispirited troops and reshape an army that could fight as a regular force again. This, combined with the creation of the Provisional All-Russian Government, saw the reduction of the Bolsheviks to most of European Russia and parts of Central Asia. ed.. Liddell Hart, Basil. The exchange rate with the US dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920. "Reasoned estimates have placed the number of dead from battle and disease in the … On 20 June Denikin issued his Moscow directive, ordering all AFSR units to prepare for a decisive offensive to take Moscow. The results of the civil war were momentous. [95] Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack Host sentenced 25,000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919. They had an agreement with the new Bolshevik government to be evacuated from the Eastern Front via the port of Vladivostok to France. New military technology combined with old-fashioned tactical doctrine to produce a scale of battle casualties unprecedented in American history. Red Army attacks on the anarchist forces and their sympathisers increased in ferocity throughout 1921. The Western Allies armed and supported opponents of the Bolsheviks. An agreement was reached between Denikin, head of the Volunteer Army, and Pyotr Krasnov, Ataman of the Don Cossacks, which united their forces under the sole command of Denikin. The railways barely crawl. Other forces fought against both these groups or sometimes helped one against the other. Other forces fought against both these groups or sometimes helped one against the other. The rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union shortly afterwards.[13]. As the Syrian Civil War enters its ninth year, the military opposition’s position has never looked more tenuous, and their outlook has never appeared more bleak. The Soviets engaged non-Russian peoples in Central Asia, like Magaza Masanchi, commander of the Dungan Cavalry Regiment, to fight against the Basmachis. Six days later this regime was replaced by a Bolshevik-dominated Military-Revolutionary Committee. In October 1919 he tried to capture Petrograd in a sudden assault with a force of around 20,000 men. He settled on a strategy of urban defense, proclaiming that the city would "defend itself on its own ground" and that the White Army would be lost in a labyrinth of fortified streets and there "meet its grave".[63]. Approximately 150,000 Jewish victims (125,000 in the Ukraine, 25,000 in Belarus) died between 1918 and 1922. Within a few weeks the Red Army defending Petrograd had tripled in size and outnumbered Yudenich three to one. An estimated 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine, mostly by the White Army. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined. Following the defeat of Germany in World War I in November 1918, these states were abolished. After the treaty, it looked like much of that material would fall into the hands of the Germans. Consequently, when the Soviet counteroffensive began in January 1919 under the Bolshevik leader Antonov-Ovseenko, the Cossack forces rapidly fell apart. In the Ural-Guryev operation of 1919–1920, the Red Turkestan Front defeated the Ural Army. The Soviets viewed the treaty as merely a necessary and expedient means to end the war. However, because the Committee lacked representation of the native population and poor Russian settlers, they had to release the Bolshevik prisoners almost immediately due to public outcry, and a successful takeover of this government body took place two months later in November. By February 1919 the British government had pulled its military forces out of Central Asia. [44] As a condition for peace, the proposed treaty by the Central Powers conceded huge portions of the former Russian Empire to the German Empire and the Ottoman Empire, greatly upsetting nationalists and conservatives. [17] The forced conscription drive had mixed results, successfully creating a larger army than the Whites, but with members indifferent towards Marxist–Leninist ideology. In Central Asia, Red Army troops continued to face resistance into 1923, where basmachi (armed bands of Islamic guerrillas) had formed to fight the Bolshevik takeover. The Red 5th Army, led by the capable commander Tukhachevsky, captured Elabuga on 26 May, Sarapul on 2 June and Izevsk on the 7th and continued to push forward. Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone. The area was once the main square for the Russian Empire, and many important events have occurred here. [82], In Siberia, Admiral Kolchak's army had disintegrated. On 18 November a coup d'état established Kolchak as dictator. Peter C. Mentzel, "Chaos and Utopia: The Anarchists in the Russian Revolution and Civil War". By the beginning of 1920 the main body of the Armed Forces of South Russia was rapidly retreating towards the Don, to Rostov. Krivosheev maintained that the figure of 8.668 million is correct because it excludes called up reservist… Thousands of perceived opponents of the Bolsheviks were murdered by the Cheka, and life among the peasants was miserable. Ian C.D. By 1922, there were at least 7,000,000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly 10 years of devastation from the Great War and the civil war. The Bolsheviks and their Left SR allies were opposed to it, but on 25 July the majority of the Soviet voted to call in the British and the Bolsheviks resigned. Russian Civil War Palace Square seen in modern times. 7,000,000–12,000,000 total casualties, includingcivilians and non-combatants. David Bullock, the author of The Russian Civil War (2008) has argued that no one has been able to calculate accurately the cost in human life attributable to the Civil War. Russian exiles argued that, since the pre-Bolshevik governments of Russia had remained loyal to the Allies, the Allies were bound to help them. General Denikin's military strength continued to grow in the spring of 1919. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined.". To meet this danger the Allies intervened with Great Britain and France sending troops into Russian ports. 1919 was undoubtedly the deadliest year. According to Pravda, "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. The transport from the Eastern Front to Vladivostok slowed down in the chaos, and the troops became dispersed all along the Trans-Siberian Railway. [79], After Moscow's Bolshevik government signed a military and political alliance with Nestor Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists, the Black Army attacked and defeated several regiments of Wrangel's troops in southern Ukraine, forcing him to retreat before he could capture that year's grain harvest. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. English: A war casualty is a military person who is either killed, wounded, imprisoned, or missing as a result of war; or a non-military person killed, wounded, or imprisoned (civilian casualties).The term casualty is sometimes confused with the term fatality (death). Although Russia experienced extremely rapid economic growth in the 1930s, the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar in Russian society, and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union. Basically, several parties within the country sought to overthrow what was once the Russian Empire and the Soviets took over. The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражданская война в России, tr. Casualties in the Civil War. "Reconsidering the Ukrainian Revolution 1917–1921: The Dialectics of National Liberation and Social Emancipation. They started out in St. Petersburg, and then expanded. In the early 1900s, the Russian Civil War caused as many as 9 million deaths. The high tide of the White movement against the Soviets had been reached in September 1919. A loose confederation of anti-Bolshevik forces aligned against the Communist government, including landowners, republicans, conservatives, middle-class citizens, reactionaries, pro-monarchists, liberals, army generals, non-Bolshevik socialists who still had grievances and democratic reformists voluntarily united only in their opposition to Bolshevik rule. Despite the Bolsheviks' seizure of power, they lost to the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the 1917 Russian Constituent Assembly election, and the Constituent Assembly was dissolved by the Bolsheviks. On the Volga, Col. Kappel's White detachment captured Kazan on 7 August, but the Reds re-captured the city on 8 September 1918 following a counteroffensive. Besieged in Idlib province, the opposition has performed several successful raids in the past year, but has lost a significant amount of territory, including the major towns of Khan Sheikhoun and Ma’arat al-Numaan. The Baku Soviet Commune ended its existence and was replaced by the Central Caspian Dictatorship. Trotsky armed all available workers, men and women, ordering the transfer of military forces from Moscow. While resistance to the Red Guards began on the very day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the instinct of one-party rule became a catalyst[20] for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new Soviet government. Their sources were Soviet reports from the field and other archive documents that were secret during the Soviet era, including a secret Soviet General Staffreport from 1966–68. [27] The Second Polish Republic, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia formed their own armies immediately after the abolition of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty and the start of the Soviet westward offensive in November 1918.[28]. Lenin personally apologized to the Germans for the assassination. The White Army launched several attacks from the East in March, the South in July, and West in October 1919. The towns are full of refuse. The Ottoman Army of Islam (in coalition with Azerbaijan) drove them out of Baku on 26 July 1918. At the same time Denikin's Armed Forces of South Russia (AFSR) completed the elimination of Red forces in the northern Caucasus and advanced towards Tsaritsyn. "The Disintegration of the Russian Army in 1917: Factors and Actors in the Process. It can also be roughly split into the following periods. French forces landed in Odessa but, after having done almost no fighting, withdrew on 8 April 1919. Not only was the wartime carnage on the battlefields great, but many civilians died as well. The remoteness of the Volga Region, the Ural Region, Siberia and the Far East was favorable for the anti-Bolshevik forces, and the Whites set up a number of organizations in the cities of these regions. Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossii)[9] was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. In October Gen. Alekseev, the leader of the White armies in southern Russia died of a heart attack. At any rate, these casualties exceed the nation's loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution through Vietnam. [10] Thirteen foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War with the goal of re-establishing the Eastern Front. The Japanese, who had plans to annex the Amur Krai, finally pulled their troops out as Bolshevik forces gradually asserted control over the Russian Far East. The remaining scattered resistance was more or less a matter of mopping up for the Bolsheviks. [35] The Leagues of Mohammedam Working People, which Russian settlers and natives who had been sent to work behind the lines for the Tsarist government in 1916 formed in March 1917, had led numerous strikes in the industrial centers throughout September 1917. Already on the date of the Revolution, Cossack General Alexey Kaledin refused to recognize it and assumed full governmental authority in the Don region,[29] where the Volunteer Army began amassing support. At the end of the Civil War, the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. Retreat of the eastern front by White armies lasted three months, until mid-February 1920, when the survivors, after crossing Lake Baikal, reached Chita area and joined Ataman Semenov's forces. [89][90][91][92] More modest estimates put the numbers executed by the Bolsheviks between December 1917 and February 1922 at around 28,000 per year, with roughly 10,000 executions during the Red Terror. These advances were later checked with the Eastern Front counteroffensive, the Southern Front counteroffensive, and defeat of the Northwestern Army. Another was Gen. Malleson, leading the Malleson Mission, who assisted the Mensheviks in Ashkhabad (now the capital of Turkmenistan) with a small Anglo-Indian force. However, the number of casualties per battle remain unclear. Most of them were civilians. The first attempt to regain power from the Bolsheviks was made by the Kerensky-Krasnov uprising in October 1917. Subsequently, the Dashanaks, Right SRs and Mensheviks started negotiations with Gen. Dunsterville, the commander of the British troops in Persia. In this segment, the intent is to provide background reading on the Civil War, as well as explore the origins of the conflict. [86], During the Red Terror, estimates of Cheka executions range from 12,733 to 1.7 million. On 6–7 February Kolchak and his prime minister Victor Pepelyaev were shot and their bodies thrown through the ice of the frozen Angara River, just before the arrival of the White Army in the area.[83]. The first period lasted from the Revolution until the Armistice. Former Imperial Russian and then Finnish Gen. Mannerheim planned an intervention to help the Whites in Russia capture Petrograd. in Ian C. D. Moffat. This allowed the Red Army to cross the Don River, threatening to split the Don and Volunteer Armies. In September 1918 Komuch, the Siberian Provisional Government and other local anti-Soviet governments met in Ufa and agreed to form a new Provisional All-Russian Government in Omsk, headed by a Directory of five: two Socialist-Revolutionaries (Nikolai Avksentiev and Vladimir Zenzinov), two Kadets (V. A. Vinogradov and PV Vologodskii) and General Vasily Boldyrev. During the winter 1919–20, the Orenburg Army retreated to Semirechye in what is known as the Starving March, as half of the participants perished. In the European part of Russia the war was fought across three main fronts: the eastern, the southern and the northwestern. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle". [96] Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone. Kursk and Orel were taken, on 20 September and 14 October, respectively. In January 1918 the Bolsheviks dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly and proclaimed the Soviets (workers' councils) as the new government of Russia. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia.The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army.The Red Army was an army of communists.The White Army opposed the communists. For a time Central Asia was completely cut off from Red Army forces in Siberia. In Central Asia, Red Army troops continued to face resistance into 1923, where basmachi (armed bands of Islamic guerrillas) had formed to fight the Bolshevik takeover. With the main base of the Russian SFSR secured, the Soviets could now strike back. Though the number of killed and wounded in the Civil War is not known precisely, most sources agree that the total number killed was between 640,000 and 700,000. The Russian Civil War, which started just after November 1917, would tear apart Russia for three years. These troops came to Vladivostok in August 1918. By 19 October Yudenich's troops had reached the outskirts of the city. The Red Army eventually halted this offensive, and Wrangel's troops had to retreat to Crimea in November 1920, pursued by both the Red and Black cavalry and infantry. The total American Civil War casualty count is usually said to be 618,000-620,000. Based on the statistics, the following losses can be identified: 1. [42] Even before the failed summer offensive the Russian population was very skeptical about the continuation of the war. White resistance was sporadic for two years until the collapse of the White Army in Yakut in June 1923, but went on in Central Asia and Khabarovsk Krai. Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack Host sentenced 25,000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919. [75] Although this communication failure weakened the Red Army, the Bolsheviks continued their efforts to gain support for the Bolshevik Party in Central Asia by holding a second regional conference in March. "[citation needed] It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the pre-World War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. Support for the war and the Czar, Nicholas II, was dwindling and the country was on the brink of revolution. It is estimated that the former Soviet Union lost some 1.5 million combatants, and around 8 million civilians died following armed attacks, famine and disease. Not long after this Kolchak was arrested by the disaffected Czechoslovak Corps as he traveled towards Irkutsk without the protection of the army, and turned over to the socialist Political Centre in Irkutsk. Following the disastrous Novorossiysk evacuation, Denikin stepped down and the military council elected Wrangel as the new Commander-in-Chief of the White Army. The Bolsheviks soon lost the support of other far-left allies such as the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries due to their acceptance of the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk presented by Germany.[14]. A Ukrainian nationalist movement was active in Ukraine during the war. The smaller body (Kiev and Odessa troops) withdrew to Odessa and the Crimea, which it had managed to protect from the Bolsheviks during the winter of 1919–1920. Due to Red Army successes north of Central Asia, communication with Moscow was re-established and the Bolsheviks were able to claim victory over the White Army in Turkestan.[75]. [34] The Bolsheviks attempted to take control of the Committee in Tashkent on 12 September 1917 but it was unsuccessful, and many leaders were arrested. More than 100 million people from over 30 nations participated in the war. Officially, Russia isn’t part of the fighting in North Africa, which has been ongoing for several years now. By mid-December 1918 White armies had to leave Ufa, but they balanced this failure with a successful drive towards Perm, which they took on 24 December. Denikin's troops took the cities of Kharkov and Belgorod. ", Ford, Chris. These sources are cited below. The remaining White forces under Yevgeny Miller evacuated the region in February 1920. [11], Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war. [40] Vladimir Lenin's political enemies attributed that decision to his sponsorship by the Foreign Office of Wilhelm II, German Emperor, offered to Lenin in hope that, with a revolution, Russia would withdraw from World War I. Fierce fighting took place at the key rail junction of Kastornoye, which was taken on 15 November; Kursk was retaken two days later.[73]. [51] The Soviets recaptured Rostov on the next day. In 1917 Russia was in a state of political strife. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. Private contractors belonging to the Wagner Group in Libya had suffered heavy casualties. At this point Yudenich, short of supplies, decided to call off the siege of the city and withdrew, repeatedly asking permission to withdraw his army across the border to Estonia. [88] Some sources claimed at least 250,000 summary executions of "enemies of the people" with estimates reaching above a million. At the same time White troops under Wrangel's command took Tsaritsyn on 17 June 1919. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Spring 1919 counteroffensive of the Red Army, 1917 Russian Constituent Assembly election, People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War, Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks, Declaration of Rights of Nations of Russia, Romanian military intervention in Bessarabia, Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia, Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly, hard fighting with doubtful outcomes took place, Far Eastern Front in the Russian Civil War, Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War, Index of articles related to the Russian Revolution and Civil War, "Russian Civil War | Causes, Outcome, and Effects", "Revolutionary ferment in Finland and the origins of the civil war 1917–1918", Каледин, Алексей Максимович. [23], The German Empire created several short-lived satellite buffer states within its sphere of influence after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: the United Baltic Duchy, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Kingdom of Lithuania, Kingdom of Poland,[24] the Belarusian People's Republic, and the Ukrainian State. I would belive the the deadliest battle would have been the Tsaritsyn(Now Volvograd, previously Stalingrad) which of course happened in the city of Tsaritsyn. During World War II, most of the world's nations were divided between two different military alliances known as the Axis and the Allies.. One of the things that stands out most about this war is the number of casualties. The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded, and machines damaged. Syria conflict: 34% rise in civilian deaths caused by Russian airstrikes, report finds. 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