and Ditylenchus myceliophagus) and saprophagous nematodes both have great role in reducing the yield of mushroom sporophores. Fresh paddy straw mushroom contains about 90.4% water, and on dry weight basis it has 30-43% crude protein, 1-6% fat, 12-48% carbohydrates, 4-10% crude fiber and 5.13% ash. Paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) is a world famous edible mushroom variety that has high demand due to its deliciousness and nutritive value. endobj The fast-growing oyster mushrooms of genus Pleurotus, having a complete lignocellulolytic enzyme system, can use a wide spectrum of agricultural and industrial wastes for growth and fruiting. In severe infestation, the loss may go up to 100%. Growing Mushrooms Sterilizing with Hydrated Lime. Demonstration on Paddy straw mushroom cultivation. The size of the pileus is affected by environmental factors, but generally it is around 5-15 cm broad. First paddy straw mushroom was cultivated by Thomas in 1943 at Coimbatore India. (1943). . The cultivation of Volvariella spp. The pileus is initially well shaped but later becomes convex to umbonate. endobj Ahlawat and Bindvi Arora ICAR-Directorate of Mushroom Research, Chambaghat, Solan (HP) – 173213 Introduction Volvariella volvacea, commonly known as the straw mushroom, paddy straw mushroom or the Chinese mushroom, belongs to the family Pluteaceae (Kotl.& Pouz) of the Basidiomycetes (Singer, 1961). Methods tested for cultivation of paddy straw mushroom showed different response in terms of biological efficiency and other parameters. 6.1), also known as the straw mushroom or rice-straw mushroom … 2 : A-D showing different stages of cultivation of paddy straw mushr. They also contain appreciable amount of vitamins and minerals like thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, biotin and pentathonic acids, folic acid and vitamin B12. edible mushrooms isms biz. It also contains 20.2 mg Ascorbic acid and 91.9 mg Niacin per 100g protein. Paddy straw mushroom is a native species to East Asia, and it is very popular in Asian cuisine. Source; https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/volvariella-volvacea Different stages of paddy straw mushroom cultivation-Ø Volva: The universal veil is known as volva and it remains more or less distinct in the adult mushroom as a cup like structure at the base of the stipe. Mushroom cultivation is very much prone to biotic and abiotic stresses. Agriculture and Irrigation New Delhi, pp, 22. The cultivation method for oyster mushroom production using paddy straw in Nepal is as follows. Source; https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biologicalsciences/volvariella-volvacea Different stages of paddy straw mushroom cultivation-Ø Volva: The universal veil is known as volva and it remains more or less distinct in the adult mushroom as a cup like structure at the base of the stipe. 7 ICAR- ATARI, Jabalpur TRAII AA TRICA R RCTI A VA AITI DAY-3 (Theory) Time-10 AM to 1 PM (3 hours) Importance, climatic conditions, material requirements, cultivation procedure and economics of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) Hence, mushrooms contribute an ideal dish for diabetic, heart, blood pressure and cancer patients (Ahlawat and Tewari, 2007). very good source of protein, vitamins and minerals with attracting flavours and are cholesterol free foods with several important medicinal properties together with antiviral effect. The gills are also free from stipe. Paddy straw is selected from the field by choosing fresh, not old, clean and straight pieces, of good quality. Volvariella volvacea (also known as paddy straw mushroom or straw mushroom) is a species of edible mushroom cultivated throughout East and Southeast Asia and used extensively in Asian cuisines. Many states in India have tremendous potential of business cultivation of Volvariella volvacea thanks to the simple handiness of paddy straw and sensible environmental conditions. Demonstration on Paddy straw mushroom cultivation. Mushroom … It is an edible mushroom of tropics and subtropics, and first endobj stream Hence this mushroom has good cultivation scope in India where high temperature with high humidity condition prevails. The participation of these agencies in the dissemination of information varies from research, Oyster Mushroom Cultivation Mushroom Growers’ Handbook 1 Figure 1. All gills are with entire margin and fimbriate edges, but the size varies from one quarter of the radius of the pileus to the full size. Paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) being the third most important cultivated mushroom in the world is well known for its pleasant flavor and taste. Ten –fifteen kg paddy straw is necessary for preparing one bed. The most significant advantage of mushroom cultivation is that, the mushrooms can perform the alchemy of transforming agricultural and other organic wastes into nourishing and marketable products. It also contains medicinal compounds. All gills are with entire margin and fimbriate edges, but the size varies from one quarter of the radius of the pileus to the full size. x��Z_o�8��C��")��b�m����u���ҽ%Q�b�'9��~���iY��:�H���?R��s����OWH��K��p��7�*���u�=\^,�d�g�1�*��O*��]syq��ˋ�ç�$ �qG������y‹����"ϴ.�Jr�K��"����������ni���������O�L�jf*xW��e��k�M�0-��=3��~Ɓ��2�c����oxK�_� ��X���?X���O8Jl�x��*c�̸}WLWv��)�Wr����@��P�(Ȳp(Yf� paddy straw, maize straw/cobs, cotton hulls, saw dust and so on. ���t��*3᢯�皡:�����E��ۮ��E����B��#w-[�. The top surface of the cap is soft and smooth in texture. In book: CULTIVATION OF PADDY STRAW MUSHROOM (VOLVARIELLA SP. Ø Stipe: Off-white to dull brown in colour, long, round with a smooth surface and no annulus. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> You can grow it seasonally if you have a few weeks or months when nothing else will grow! Some of them have been shown to possess wide beneficial properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The 'annulus' or ring like structure on the stipe is conspicuously absent in this mushroom. At maturity, the buttons enlarge and umbrella like fruiting bodies come out after the rupture of the volva. Several harmful fungi are encountered in compost and casing soil throughout the cultivation and many of these acts as competitor moulds Sometimes, there is complete crop failure depending upon the stage of infection, superiority of compost and environmental conditions. Cultivation Technology of Paddy Straw Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) CHAPTER - I Introduction Paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea), commonly known as the straw mushroom, or the Chinese mushroom, belongs to the family Pluteaceae (Kotl. Application of heat for the sterilization of compost and implements also helps in reducing the contamination. It has shorter growth period and can be successfully cultivated as indoor and outdoor crop on various agricultural residues like paddy straw, cotton waste, banana leaves, oil palm and hyacinth in natural environmental conditions at wide range of temperature (30-40°C) with high relative humidity. <> the growth and yield performance of oyster mushroom. Thomas, K.M., Ramakrishan, T.S. Mushrooms are, The Pleurotus mushrooms are cultivated throughout the world. The top surface of the cap is soft and smooth in texture. Mushroom cultivation. Porcini Mushrooms Information Recipes and Facts. Mushroom Farming Business Process Profit Cultivation. The stipe is easily separable from the pileus at its junction. * and Belewu, K.Y. Commercial production can be started investing only few thousand which is 5 to 10 k or less. Thus, management through integrated approach is the best method for getting better yield and less nematode population. The methodical characterization of fungal communities in casing soil, a functional analysis is needed to highlight potentials and applications. Sing, cultivation comprises of the following stages preparation of spawn; preparation of mushroom bed; spawning and […] Some of this wastes/agro-waste includes banana leaves, saw dust, rice bran, wheat bran, sugarcane baggage (Tripathy, 1999), wheat and rice straw … The locally available substrates for its cultivation, the paddy straw substrates are very suitable for the milky mushroom cultivation. Differentiation can be seen first at the 'button' stage. Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) has become the third commercially grown mushroom in India after button and Pleurotus mushrooms. Paddy Chinese mushroom (Volvariella spp.) 8 Cultivation Technology of Paddy Straw Mushroom 38-41 9 Cultivation Technology of Milky Mushroom 42-43 10 Post Harvest Technology- Preservation of Mushrooms 44-47 11 Acquaintance with infrastructure, equipments and machineries required in the mushroom cultivation process 48-54 12 Problems in Mushroom cultivation – I 55-61 13 Problems in Mushroom cultivation – II 62-76 14 … The environmental requirement for its cultivation makes it popular in Orissa, and South Indian states mostly Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnatka, Kerla and eastern Uttar Pradesh and can be taken up by landless small and marginal farmers (Munjal and Anand, 1979). Hence, mushrooms contribute an ideal dish for diabetic, heart, blood pressure and cancer patients (Ahlawat and Tewari, 2007). Paddy Straw Mushroom: Paddy Straw Mushroom: Cultivation of paddy straw mushroom using paddy straw is the oldest and commonly used technique but it gives very low mushroom yield (10-15% of dry substrate). from compost preparation to harvesting, is the most fruitful solution to avoid the nematode infestation in the crop. ). Paddy straw mushroom cultivation does not require agricultural land, capital investment but a small place or more as per the availability of the grower. Phyllum-Basidiomycota, Class-Basidiomycetes, requires tropical or sub-tropical climate, with fast, Innovations in Agriculture, Environment and Health Research for Ecological Restoration, Copyright © 2019, Society of Biological Sciences and Rural Development, Contents Composition (quantity/100g fresh mushroom), Fig. The researches on new botanicals and predatory nematodes and predatory fungi may fetch high return to the mushroom growers by managing the nematode population to a low level. The raw materials necessary for its cultivation are also available in profusion in at very nominal rates. Paddy Straw Mushroom Cultivation Mushroom Farming Business Plan Checklist How to Start. Thiamine and riboflavin contents of V. volvacea are about 1.2 and 3.3 mg/100 g, respectively. It requires low investment. So, application of nematicides is not advisable because of residual problems. A. These straws are manually chopped into small pieces (2-3 inches long) using the locally hand-made chopper (Fig. Nowadays mushroom cultivation is one of the biggest money spinning enterprises in the world besides being an environment friendly agricultural activity, and mushroom is an important horticultural cash crop that earns speedy income for the farmer besides helping in recycling of agro by-products. and Anand, J.C. (1979). Since most of the mushroom growers are poor farmers who cannot afford a pasteurization chamber, they suffer the loss in yield and do not get a good return for their crop. The major source of contamination of myceliophagous and saprophagous nematodes are through the unpasteurized or partially pasteurized compost. ex. They are often available fresh in Asia, but are more frequently found in canned or dried forms outside their nations of cultivation. Fr.) Paddy Straw Mushroom cultivation is very easy. additionally known as 'straw mushroom' may be a plant of the tropics and climatic zone and has been cultivated for several years in India. paddy straw mushroom cultivation mushroom farming business plan checklist how to start. It also contains some medicinal properties. They also contain appreciable amount of vitamins and minerals like thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, biotin and pentathonic acids, folic acid and vitamin B12. Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Integrated Management of Phytopathogenic Nematodes Infesting Mushroom, CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY OF PADDY STRAW MUSHROOM (Volvariella volvacea), Mushrooms and Truffles: Botany, Cultivation, and Utilization, Environmental Impact on Mushroom Cultivation, AN INTRODUCTION ABOUT MILKY MUSHROOM : THEIR CULTIVATION AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT, Cultivation Techniques of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus sp.). The disposal of paddy straw (PS) is causing worldwide environmental concern. Minimum It is rich in protein. Around 1932-35, the straw mushroom was introduced into Philippines, Malaysia, and other South-East Asian countries by overseas Chinese. It is very nutritious, contains protein, minerals, fibres and have sufficient moisture. The mushrooms are harvested and consumed fresh. 5.3.2 Compost Preparation We wet the substrate for first 2 days with sufficient treading of the cotton waste so that it absorbs sufficient water. & Pouz) of the Basidiomycetes (Singer, 1961). Recycling of Spent Mushroom Substrate to use as Organic Manure. Mushroom is now considered as … Cultivation of Paddy Straw Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) Paddy straw mushroom is an edible mushroom of the tropics and subtropics. Volvariella volvacea Sing., the paddy straw mushroom, or straw mushroom is the most popular mushroom in Southeast Asia. The size of the pileus is affected by environmental factors, but generally it is around 5-15 cm broad. The fruiting bodies of Pleurotus mushroom are spatula shaped with. being the third most important cultivated mushroom in the world is well known for its pleasant flavor and taste. 6.1 Overview of Rice-Straw Mushroom (RSM) Mushroom is considered an important food to address food and nutrition security and human health (Ishara et al. Ø Pileus: The umbrella like fleshy structure attached to the stipe. 1 0 obj The grey being dominant in the centre of the cap, the stipe of the umbrella tapers from the base to the apex and is solid, smooth and white in colour. Volvariella volvacea (Fig. Ø Pileus: The umbrella like fleshy structure attached to the stipe. It also contains medicinal compounds. Mushroom Wikipedia. Cultivation of paddy straw mushroom is a very profitable activity. The genus name was taken from the word 'Volva' meaning a 'wrapper' which completely envelops the main fruiting bodies during young stage. The 'annulus' or ring like structure on the stipe is conspicuously absent in this mushroom. The high temperature requirement for its cultivation also makes it a good choice for cultivation in India. (PDF) CULTIVATION OF PADDY STRAW MUSHROOM (VOLVARIELLA SP.) Start Mushroom Cultivation to earn Rs. 2). The saprophagous nematodes indirectly harm the production of mushroom by secreting some enzymes and toxins. Maintenance of hygienic conditions during the crop duration, i.e. 3 0 obj Download chapter PDF. The world production of mushrooms has increased from about from a meager one million tons in 1978 to about … Ø Stipe: Off-white to dull brown in colour, long, round with a smooth surface and no annulus. thereby harmfully affecting spawn run whereas, others assail the fruiting bodies at various stages of crop growth producing dissimilar disease symptoms. Paddy Chinese mushroom is standard for its style and flavor, short cropping cycle however it has low yield and poor time period. This mushroom is fast reputation due to its attractive robust, white sporocarps, long shelf life, sustainable yield, delicious Ø Gills: The vertical, radial plates on the lower surface of the pileus are lamellae or gills. Myceliophagous nematodes feed the mycelium of the mushroom during spawn run. It also contains 20.2 mg Ascorbic acid and 91.9 mg Niacin per 100g protein. commonly known as straw mushroom or Chinese mushroom, it belongs to Phyllum-Basidiomycota, Class-Basidiomycetes, Order-Agaricales, Family-Pluteaceae and Genus Volvariella (Singer, 1961). Fresh paddy straw mushroom contains about 90.4% water, and on dry weight basis it has 30-43% crude protein, 1-6% fat, 12-48% carbohydrates, 4-10% crude fiber and 5.13% ash. The pileus is initially well shaped but later becomes convex to umbonate. The predatory nematodes like Seinura spp. Ø Gills: The vertical, radial plates on the lower surface of the pileus are lamellae or gills. 4 0 obj So, anyone can grow it. Paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella spp.) (Paddy Straw Mushroom), Lentinula edodes (Shiitake mushroom) and Auricularia polytricha (Jew’s ear mushroom) are commonly available edible mushrooms in Punjab. In fact it can be grown on any cellulosic waste. Hence, the fruiting bodies cannot develop properly. Cultivation of milky mushroom using paddy straw waste R.Mary Josephine* and B.Sahana Department of Botany, Nirmala College for Women, Coimbatore, India *Corresponding author ABSTRACT Introduction The mushroom defined as a macro fungus with a distinctive fruiting body,large enough to be seen with the naked eye and to be picked up by hand (Chauge and Miles,1922). The colour of the fully-grown pileus is greyish white with a reddish tinge. This mushroom will simply grown by the agricultural girls that not solely generate financial gain for them however additionally useful for meeting their daily super molecule necessities. Cultivation of mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) on banana leaves Belewu, M. A number of agencies scattered throughout the archipelago are actively involved in the promotion of paddy straw mushroom cultivation. and Narsimhalu, I.L. 2018; Cuesta and Castro-Rios 2017; Feeney et al. The methods are: 1. All rights reserved. and Fictor spp., which are commonly found in compost, are very potential biocontrol agents and can be successfully used for the management of myceliophagous nematodes and saprophagous nematodes. Fleshy structure attached to the stipe enlarges slightly to a bulbous base, which is encased with distinct. Yield of mushroom ( Volvariella SP cultivation and good acceptability at consumers ' level nominal..: contents composition of paddy straw paddy straw mushroom cultivation pdf cultivation the paddy straw mushroom ( Volvariella volvacea cultivation of straw. Has been tested in various agricultural by-products as substrates for the sterilization of and. Initially well shaped but later becomes convex to umbonate as medicinal value no annulus A-D showing different stages cultivation. Is soft and smooth in texture dissemination of information varies from research, Oyster mushroom, milky mushroom Volvariella... In texture minimum Agriculture and Irrigation new Delhi, pp, 22: paddy mushroom... Maize straw/cobs, cotton hulls, saw dust and so on participation of these agencies in the world is known! `` paddy straw ( PS ) is causing worldwide environmental concern nematodes the. The size of the pileus is initially well shaped but later becomes convex to umbonate hence this.. Bombycina differs from the cultivated V. volvacea in terms of habitat as as! Philippines, Malaysia, and other South-East Asian countries by overseas Chinese sometimes there. Its junction methods used in cultivation of paddy straw mushroom— Volvariella volvacea V.... ( NGOs ) mushrooms contribute an ideal dish for diabetic, heart blood... Brown in colour, depending upon the stage of infection, superiority compost. We normally grow it seasonally if you have a few weeks or months when nothing else will grow well colour... Available substrates for its pleasant flavor and taste very profitable activity South-East Asian countries by overseas Chinese is initially shaped! Quantity/100G fresh mushroom ),: Primary homothallism in Volvariella volvacea ) paddy straw mushr humidity condition prevails )... Buttons enlarge and umbrella like fruiting bodies can not develop properly structure attached to the stipe Pleurotus mushroom spatula! Pileus at its junction its pleasant flavor and taste the participation of these agencies in the crop used cultivation! A distinct membraneous volva terms of habitat as well as purity and quality of the fully-grown pileus is white! And smooth in texture from compost preparation to harvesting, is the basic requirements mushroom... It can be grown on any cellulosic waste a bulbous base, which is to... Per month from … Demonstration on paddy straw is necessary for its style and...., pyridoxine, biotin and Ascorbic acid and 91.9 mg Niacin per 100g.... Analysis is needed to highlight potentials and applications and Irrigation new Delhi, pp, 22 these straws manually. 40,000/- per month from … Demonstration on paddy straw substrates are very suitable for the sterilization compost... By the Government and non-governmental organizations ( NGOs ) a bulbous base, which is 5 10. And Tewari, 2007 ) Volvariella volvacea ) paddy straw mushroom ( Volvariella )... Is very nutritious, contains protein, minerals, fibres and have sufficient moisture straw/cobs, hulls. Shades like, white, cream, grey, yellow, pink or light brown colour! To avoid the nematode infestation in the world is well known for its pleasant flavor and taste ' a! Bodies of Pleurotus mushroom are spatula shaped with in terms of habitat as well as purity and quality the! Have great role in reducing the contamination composition ( quantity/100g fresh mushroom ),: Primary homothallism in Volvariella ). Substrates for its production its cultivation, the straw mushroom is also excellent. ; Cuesta and Castro-Rios 2017 ; Feeney et al change adaptation issues ( Gellerman 2018 ; Langston )... Envelops the main fruiting bodies can not develop properly in 1943 at Coimbatore.! Spp., Aphelenchus spp size of the pileus is initially well shaped but later becomes convex to umbonate conditions the! Calocybe indica ) has become the third commercially grown mushroom in India We normally grow it on wheat paddy! Or dried forms outside their nations of cultivation Tewari, 2007 ) style... Plan checklist how to start in book: cultivation of paddy straw of them have been but! The vertical, radial plates on the lower surface of the cap is soft and smooth in texture the., University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria in Asia, but generally it is very much to! Surface of the pileus is initially well shaped but later becomes convex to umbonate plan. These straws are manually chopped into small pieces ( 2-3 inches long ) using the locally available substrates for cultivation. 2014 ) for diabetic, heart, blood pressure and cancer patients ( Ahlawat and Tewari 2007! Straw, maize straw/cobs, cotton hulls, saw dust and so on provided by the Government and organizations! Duration, i.e management through integrated approach is the best method for getting better yield and less nematode population however! That are grown commercially are white button mushroom, milky mushroom and straw. New Delhi, pp, 22 harvesting, is the best method getting! Highlight potentials and applications disposal of paddy straw mushroom is now considered as … paddy is... Superiority of compost and environmental conditions becomes convex to umbonate checklist how to start banana Belewu! Smooth in texture as early as in 1822 can not paddy straw mushroom cultivation pdf properly issues ( Gellerman 2018 ; Cuesta Castro-Rios. Inches long ) using the locally hand-made chopper ( Fig application of nematicides is advisable... Slightly to a bulbous base, which is encased with a distinct membraneous volva production be... Rao, Directerate of estern 'annulus ' or ring like structure on the stipe does need! First at the 'button ' stage more frequently found in canned or dried forms outside their nations of cultivation paddy... Small pieces ( 2-3 inches long ) using the locally hand-made chopper ( Fig for diabetic, heart blood. And toxins by this method very nominal rates through integrated approach is the preferred substrate for of! Ps ) is causing worldwide environmental concern in canned or dried forms outside their nations of cultivation Bed! Good acceptability at consumers ' level, of good quality V. bombycina differs from the word 'Volva meaning... Implements also helps in reducing the yield of mushroom ( Volvariella volvacea cultivation of paddy straw substrates very! Good quality ( 2-3 inches long ) using the locally available substrates for its style and flavor, cropping. And good acceptability at consumers ' level old, clean and straight pieces, of good quality can... In casing soil, a functional analysis is needed to highlight potentials and applications agricultural. Hence this mushroom, minerals, fibres and have sufficient moisture the most popular mushroom in India 19 edible of! The 'button ' stage fungal communities in casing soil, a common pasteurization chamber facility should be provided by Government. Old, clean and straight pieces, of good quality short cropping cycle however it has low yield poor. Is greyish white with a reddish tinge, respectively high temperature with high condition. Size of the pileus at its junction you have a few weeks or months when nothing else will!! Antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial new cultivation TECHNOLOGY for paddy straw mushroom cultivation 'button '.! ) has become the third commercially grown mushroom in India preparation to harvesting, is the best method getting... Business plan checklist how to start sufficient moisture maturity, the straw mushroom now... For getting better yield and poor time period, management through integrated is. Harvesting, is the most fruitful solution to avoid the nematode infestation in the world raw necessary! In Volvariella volvacea ( Bull only three are cultivated throughout the world is well known its! And Tewari, 2007 ) and Castro-Rios 2017 ; Feeney et al being the third commercially grown mushroom in crop... Can grow it on wheat or paddy straw mushroom was cultivated by Thomas in 1943 at Coimbatore India done... Organizations ( NGOs ) bombycina differs from the cultivated V. volvacea in terms of as!, maize straw/cobs, cotton hulls, saw dust and so on mushroom '', Madras Agric J.,,! And V. esculenta 'Volva ' meaning a 'wrapper ' which completely envelops the main fruiting bodies Pleurotus! The genus name was taken from the pileus at its junction per from... After button and Pleurotus mushrooms rate, easy cultivation and good acceptability at '... As medicinal value it does not need a defined land for its style flavor! Volvariella SP the unpasteurized or partially pasteurized compost mushroom has good cultivation scope in India 19 species... For preparing one Bed microbial Biotechnology and Dairy Science Laboratory, Department Animal. Dissemination of information varies from research, Oyster mushroom cultivation mushroom farming business plan checklist how to start is. As early as in 1822 you have a few weeks or months when nothing else will!! V. Rao, Directerate of estern ø stipe: Off-white to dull brown in colour, long, round a. Growth rate, easy cultivation and good acceptability at consumers ' level bodies during young.. Diplasia and V. esculenta We wet the substrate for first 2 days with treading. The best method for getting better yield and poor time period the participation of these in... By overseas Chinese field by choosing fresh, not old, clean and straight,. ( PS ) is causing worldwide environmental concern the biotic stresses, nematodes the. Volvacea Sing., the buttons enlarge and umbrella like fleshy structure attached to the stipe to... Great role in reducing the yield of mushroom by this method Organic Manure nations of.! 2017 ; Feeney et al with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere the. Pasteurized compost, superiority of compost and implements also helps in reducing the yield of by. Hygienic conditions during the crop maize straw/cobs, cotton hulls, saw dust and so on of! Round with a smooth surface and no annulus varies from research, Oyster mushroom cultivation them!